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Contents

Metadata about the metadata record Metadata about the resource
File Identifier
Hierarchy level name
Metadata date
Metadata language
Metadata point of contact
Parent identifier
Resource type
Abstract
Additional information
Alternative title
Bounding box
Character encoding
Conformity
Data format
Data quality
Dataset language
Dataset reference date
Equivalent scale
Extent
Keyword
Limitations on public access
Lineage
Maintenance information
Quality scope
Resource identifier
Resource locator
Responsible organisation
Spatial reference system
Spatial representation type
Spatial resolution
Temporal extent
Title
Topic Category
Use constraints
Vertical extent information

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Metadata about the metadata record

Name : Metadata date
UK GEMINI id 30
Definition Date on which the metadata was last updated, or was confirmed as being up-to-date, or if not updated, then the date it was created
Purpose and meaning This is the date at which the metadata can be considered current (rather than the dataset itself). It may be the date at which the metadata was reviewed and confirmed as being 'current'. It is used to distinguish which of two records with the same fileIdentifier the system will keep.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type Date
Domain Single date as specified by BS ISO 8601 in the extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD), where YYYY is the year, MM is the month and DD is the day. Time (HH:MM:SS, where HH is the hour, MM the minutes and SS the seconds) may be added if required, separated from the day by 'T'.
Guidance
  1. This should be updated whenever the metadata is updated due to a change in the dataset, or when it is reviewed and confirmed as wholly correct.
  2. The date should be at an appropriate level of resolution (e.g. the day, or the day and month).
  3. The date should not be in the future.
Comment If the metadata has not been updated, then this should be the date when it was created.
Examples 2001-09-02
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata date Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.dateStamp Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dateStamp/gco:Date Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from Date of last update of metadata
Guidelines The encoding example for metadata date is shown in Example One. Note that it is possible to record the date and time of the metadata instance using the encoding shown in Example Two.
Example Example One
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dateStamp>
    <gco:Date>2009-10-15</gco:Date>
  </gmd:dateStamp>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two (date and time)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dateStamp>
    <gco:DateTime>2009-10-15T12:01:30</gco:DateTime>
  </gmd:dateStamp>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed This is used to distinguish which of two records with the same fileIdentifier the system will keep. Even if the records are moved to a different server, if the fileIdentifier and metadata date are the same, the harvester will not collect the new files.
Name : Metadata language
UK GEMINI id 33
Definition Language used for documenting the metadata
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this is to identify the language used in a multi-lingual metadata service, for example in the INSPIRE geo-portal.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. It is recommended to select a value from a controlled vocabulary, for example that provided by ISO 639-2 which uses three-letter primary tags with optional subtags.
  2. The values for the UK are:
    English eng
    Welsh cym*
    Irish gle
    Gaelic (Scottish) gla
    Cornish cor
    Ulster Scots sco
    *ISO 639/2 has two codes for Welsh: textual ('cym') and bibliographic ('wel'). For GEMINI we recommend using cym, which abbreviates that language's own name for itself.
  3. Other official European languages are listed at Official languages of the EU.
  4. In general, a default value of 'eng' can be applied.
  5. If there is only a small amount of metadata in a second language, e.g. Alternative title, then Metadata language should still indicate the main language.
Comment For INSPIRE, the metadata itself must be in one of the official European languages, such as English or Irish.
Examples eng
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata language Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.language Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:language/gmd:LanguageCode Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines INSPIRE recommends providing the name of the language as content of the gmd:LanguageCode element
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:language>
    <gmd:LanguageCode 
      codeList='http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php' 
      codeListValue='eng'>English</gmd:LanguageCode>
  </gmd:language>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
     
Errors observed Metadata language missing
Metadata language is optional in ISO 19115 and GEMINI 2.2, but mandatory for INSPIRE and therefore in GEMINI 2.3. This is now checked by the UK Location GEMINI schematron.
Name : Metadata point of contact
UK GEMINI id 35
Definition Party responsible for the creation and maintenance of the metadata
Purpose and meaning This is the organisation or role in an organisation responsible for this metadata.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance Should include organisation name and contact email address, as described under Responsible party.
Comment
Examples Large-scale Topographic Data Manager, Ordnance Survey.
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Metadata point of contact Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.contact > CI_ResponsibleParty ISO 19115 has a general class
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:contact/gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines
  • The encoding example for metadata point of contact is shown below. Note that the example shows the minimum required information.
  • The format of address and contact information is described at Responsible party, with a more fully populated example.
  • More than one metadata point of contact may be expressed in metadata. The role of at least one metadata point of contact shall be 'pointOfContact'.
Example Example showing minimum required information
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:contact>
    <gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
      <gmd:organisationName>
        <gco:CharacterString>SeaZone Solutions</gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:organisationName>
      <gmd:contactInfo>
        <gmd:CI_Contact>
          <gmd:address>
            <gmd:CI_Address>
              <gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                <gco:CharacterString>This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:electronicMailAddress>
            </gmd:CI_Address>
          </gmd:address>
        </gmd:CI_Contact>
      </gmd:contactInfo>
      <gmd:role>
        <gmd:CI_RoleCode 
          codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
            gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode' 
          codeListValue='pointOfContact'>pointOfContact</gmd:CI_RoleCode>
      </gmd:role>
    </gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
  </gmd:contact>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
     
No error information available
Name : Resource type
UK GEMINI id 39
Definition Scope to which metadata applies
Purpose and meaning To distinguish between datasets, series, and services
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CodeList
Domain MD_ScopeCode from ISO 19115. Codes to be used for datasets and dataset series are:
  • dataset
  • series
Guidance Identify whether resource is a dataset or a series (collection of datasets with a common specification).
Comment
Examples dataset
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource type Identical
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.hierarchyLevel Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:hierarchyLevel Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element, required for INSPIRE
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : File Identifier
UK GEMINI id 45
Definition Unique identifier for this metadata file
Purpose and meaning To support the operation of UK Location and INSPIRE, discovery metadata records must include a File Identifier for the resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. File Identifier must be populated with a unique identifier. This may be a UUID generated by a metadata creation tool.
    Once created and published to UK Location, the File Identifier must not be changed.
    A change to the File Identifier would represent the creation of a new resource.
    If the UK Catalogue receives two records with the same File Identifier, the one with the more recent metadata date will be retained.
  2. Persistence and uniqueness across the metadata infrastructure are key
  3. Only use characters that are allowed in URIs (RFC3986), in particular, do not use curly brackets
  4. ISO AP 1.0 recommends that it is a UUID
Comment File Identifier should not be confused with the UK GEMINI2 metadata item Resource identifier, which identifies the data resource being described.
Examples
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata metadata/2.0/rec/common/fileIdentifier Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.fileIdentifier Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:fileIdentifier Equivalent
  • introduced in the UK Location application profile and XML encoding
  • New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines
  1. The first XML child element of any GEMINI2 metadata instance shall be gmd:fileIdentifier. The content of this XML element is the identifier of the metadata instance. File identifier is not a metadata item of GEMINI2. It is not to be confused with the metadata item Resource identifier.
  2. The content of the XML element shall be a unique managed identifier, such as a system generated UUID. Once the identifier has been set for a metadata instance it shall not change.
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  <gmd:fileIdentifier>
    <gco:CharacterString>98e25be5-388d-4be3-bc5f-ba07ef6009b2</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:fileIdentifier>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed
  1. Two records with the same identifier, resulting in only one being harvested
  2. New identifier for an existing record, leading to duplicate records
  3. Identifiers wrapped in curly brackets
Name : Hierarchy level name
UK GEMINI id 47
Definition Name of the hierarchy level for which the metadata is provided
Purpose and meaning Required in the ISO 19115 encoding of GEMINI 2.1 metadata records, where it allows for multiple scoped sections in the metadata.
Obligation Conditional, required when Resource type (ISO hierarchyLevel) is not "dataset".
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance Set to an appropriate text string
Comment
Examples
  • series
  • collection of observations over time
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata see metadata/2.0/req/sds/resource-type, even for series Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Metadata.hierarchyLevelName Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:hierarchyLevelName Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines
  1. XML elements for encoding metadata for datasets and series of datasets are drawn, primarily, from the gmd and gco namespaces and also the gml and xlink namespaces. Identification information is encoded using the gmd:MD_DataIdentification type.
  2. Metadata instances may include more than one gmd:identificationInfo XML element. The first gmd:identificationInfo XML element in a GEMINI metadata instance for datasets or series shall have as its first and only child XML element gmd:MD_DataIdentification. The ISO 19115 hierarchyLevel element shall be set to 'dataset' or 'series'. For a series, ISO 19115 hierarchyLevelName element must also be set, to an appropriate character string
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:hierarchyLevelName gco:nilReason="inapplicable"/>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-13607137">
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Parent identifier
UK GEMINI id 49
Definition File identifier of the metadata that is a parent to this child metadata
Purpose and meaning Supports parent-child relationships in metadata. Allows navigation from a dataset record to the series record of which it forms a part.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain free text
Guidance Only to be used if the dataset is part of a series
Comment
Examples
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
ISO 19115:2003 MD_parentidentifier.scope Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:parentIdentifier Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:language>
    ...
  </gmd:language>
  <gmd:parentIdentifier>
    <gco:CharacterString>d442b64c-c8c8-11e4-8731-1681e6b88999</gco:CharacterString>
  </gmd:parentIdentifier>
  <gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
  </gmd:hierarchyLevel>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available

Metadata about the resource

Name : Title
UK GEMINI id 1
Definition Name given to the resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to provide a readily recognisable name for the resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. The name should be readily recognisable
  2. The title should be the formal or product name for the data resource, if existing.
  3. If no name exists, then a title should be created that is short, encapsulates the subject, temporal and spatial coverage of the data resource, and does not contain terms or jargon that make it incomprehensible.
  4. Acronyms are acceptable in the Title providing they are fully expanded in the abstract or Alternative Title.
Comment
Examples
  • OS MasterMap Topography Layer
  • Voter participation in Liverpool local elections, 1994, by ward
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource title Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.title Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:title Equivalent
Guidelines Cannot be empty
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
...
<gmd:identificationInfo>
  <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-13606338">
    <gmd:citation>
      <gmd:CI_Citation>
        <gmd:title>
          <gco:CharacterString>Digital Geological Map Data of Great Britain - 625k</gco:CharacterString>
        </gmd:title>
        ...
      </gmd:CI_Citation>
    </gmd:citation>
  </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
</gmd:identificationInfo>
...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Alternative title
UK GEMINI id 2
Definition Short name, other name, acronym or alternative language title for the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to record any alternative titles by which the data resource is known.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. Should be provided when the data resource has more than one title.
  2. There is no need to fill in this entry unless there are other names used for the dataset, for example historic names.
  3. Commonly used abbreviations or acronyms should be recorded. If the acronym or abbreviation has been used in the main Title, then use the full name in the Alternative Title.
  4. Other language equivalents should be recorded where they exist, for example the Welsh language title (although this title may refer to a different data resource).
  5. Entries should be short and concise.
  6. In some situations (for example, in order to comply with stated Use constraints) users may need a DOI in order to formally cite a dataset. ISO 19115 has a sub-element otherCitationDetails which can be used for this; see encoding below.
Comment
Examples OS large-scale data
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None INSPIRE has no Alternative title, only a single title
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.alternateTitle Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:alternateTitle Equivalent
Guidelines Note that more than one alternative title may be presented, as shown in the example below.

The ISO 19115 sub-element otherCitationDetails may be used, for example to record a formal DOI citation string, as in example 2 below

Example Example one
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
...
<gmd:identificationInfo>
  <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-13480426">
    <gmd:citation>
      <gmd:CI_Citation>
	...
	<gmd:alternateTitle>
	  <gco:CharacterString>Geology onshore digital maps 1:625 000 scale</gco:CharacterString>
	</gmd:alternateTitle>
	<gmd:alternateTitle>
	  <gco:CharacterString>DiGMapGB-625</gco:CharacterString>
	</gmd:alternateTitle>
	...
      </gmd:CI_Citation>
    </gmd:citation>
  </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
</gmd:identificationInfo>
...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example two
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
...
<gmd:identificationInfo>
  <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="CEH-LCM2007">
    <gmd:citation>
      <gmd:CI_Citation>
	...
	<gmd:alternateTitle>
	  <gco:CharacterString>Land Cover Map 2007 (1km raster, percentage aggregate class, N.Ireland)</gco:CharacterString>
	</gmd:alternateTitle>
	...
	<gmd:otherCitationDetails>
	  <gco:CharacterString>doi:10.5285/1e7d5e08-9e24-471b-ae37-49b477f695e3</gco:CharacterString>
	</gmd:otherCitationDetails>
	...
      </gmd:CI_Citation>
    </gmd:citation>
  </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
</gmd:identificationInfo>
...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Dataset language
UK GEMINI id 3
Definition Language used in the data resource
Purpose and meaning This is the written language used for any text in the dataset.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. A code should be selected from ISO 639-2, which uses three-letter primary tags with optional subtags – see http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php
  2. The values for the UK languages are:
    English eng
    Welsh cym
    Irish gle
    Gaelic (Scottish) gla
    Cornish cor
    Ulster Scots sco
    ISO 639-2 allows either 'cym' or 'wel' for Welsh, but two values for the same language causes confusion, and it is recommended that 'cym' be used.
  3. In many cases, a default value of 'eng' can be applied.
  4. Other official European languages are listed at Official languages of the EU.
  5. If there is no textual information in the data resource, then the special code value zxx of ISO 639-2/B reserved for "no linguistic content; not applicable" shall be used.
Comment
Examples eng
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource language Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.language Equivalent, but ISO 19115 only allows a single value
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:language/gmd:LanguageCode Equivalent
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2: Obligation changed from mandatory
  2. GEMINI 2 to 2.2: Obligation changed (back) to mandatory
Guidelines
  1. Note that according to the ISO 19115 logical model the language property is typed as a CharacterString. The use of the gco:CharacterString type is permitted by the ISO 19139 schemas but this approach shall not be used to encode GEMINI2 metadata. Instead the XML element gmd:LanguageCode, which substitutes for gco:CharacterString, shall be used.
  2. The XML element gmd:LanguageCode is implemented as a code list element. Note that the codeList attribute should have the following value in GEMINI2 metadata instances: http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php
  3. Note however, that this URL resolves to an HTML web page rather than a service endpoint providing ISO 639-2 language codes.
Example Example following the INSPIRE recommendation of using the name of the language as the content of the gmd:LanguageCode
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="DS-123456">
      ...
      <gmd:language>
        <gmd:LanguageCode codeList="http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/code_list.php"
            codeListValue="eng">
          English
        </gmd:LanguageCode>
      </gmd:language>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Abstract
UK GEMINI id 4
Definition Brief narrative summary of the resource
Purpose and meaning The abstract should provide a clear and concise statement that enables the reader to understand the content of the data or service
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance The abstract should provide a clear statement of the content of the data and not general background information.
  1. State what the 'things' are that are recorded.
  2. State the key aspects recorded about these things.
  3. State what form the data takes.
  4. State any other limiting information, such as time period of validity of the data.
  5. Add purpose of data resource where relevant (e.g. for survey data).
  6. Include a description of the extent or location.
  7. Include legal references.
  8. Aim to be understood by non-experts.
  9. Do not include general background information.
  10. Avoid jargon and unexplained abbreviations.
  11. Acronyms should be expanded to the full name along with the abbreviated version at the beginning of the abstract. The abbreviated version can then be used (see examples below).

Note: the Schematron validation will raise an error if the abstract is less than 100 characters, or is the same as the title.

Comment The most important details of the description should be summarised in the first sentence, or the first 256 characters.
Examples
  1. This file contains the digital vector boundaries for Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOA) as at 31 December 2011 in England and Wales.
  2. This file contains the National Statistics Postcode Lookup (NSPL) for the United Kingdom as at February 2017.
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource abstract Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.abstract Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:abstract Equivalent
Guidelines Cannot be empty
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-13603180">
      ...
      <gmd:abstract>
        <gco:CharacterString>The data shows polygonal and selected linear geological information, sourced from published 
          BGS 1:625 000 scale maps of Great Britain. 
          However, geological units are identified using the most up-to-date nomenclature that may differ from that on the 
          printed maps. The maps are generally based on published material at 1:50 000 scale and compiled using techniques of 
          selection, generalisation and exaggeration. The geology is fitted to a relevant topographic base at the time of 
          production. Full UK coverage is available. The data is available in vector format. BGS licensing terms and 
          conditions apply to external use of the data.
        </gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:abstract>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Topic Category
UK GEMINI id 5
Definition Main theme(s) of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to provide a basic classification for the data resource for use in initial searches
Obligation Mandatory when the data resource is a dataset or dataset series. Not applicable to services.
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain Enumeration MD_TopicCategoryCode taken from ISO 19115:
Name Domain code Definition
farming 001 rearing of animals and/or cultivation of plants
Examples: agriculture, plantations, herding, pests and diseases affecting crops and livestock
biota 002 flora and/or fauna in natural environment
Examples: wildlife, vegetation, biological sciences, ecology, sea-life, habitat
boundaries 003 legal land descriptions
Examples: political and administrative boundaries
climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere 004 processes and phenomena of the atmosphere
Examples: weather, climate, atmospheric conditions
economy 005 economic activities, conditions and employment
Examples: production, labour, revenue, commerce, industry
elevation 006 height above or below sea level
Examples: altitude, bathymetry, digital elevation models, slope
environment 007 environmental resources, protection and conservation
Examples: environmental pollution, waste storage and treatment, environmental impact assessment, monitoring environmental risk, nature reserves, landscape
geoscientificInformation 008 information pertaining to earth sciences
Examples: geophysical features and processes, geology, minerals, soils
health 009 health, health services, human ecology, and safety
Examples: disease and illness, factors affecting health, health services
imageryBaseMapsEarthCover 010 base maps
Examples: land cover, topographic maps, imagery, unclassified images
intelligenceMilitary 011 military bases, structures, activities
Examples: barracks, training grounds, military transportation
inlandWaters 012 inland water features, drainage systems and their characteristics
Examples: rivers, salt lakes, dams, floods, water quality, hydrographic charts
location 013 positional information and services
Examples: addresses, geodetic networks, control points, postal zones and services, place names
oceans 014 features and characteristics of salt water bodies
(excluding inland waters)
Examples: tides, tidal waves, coastal information, reefs
planningCadastre 015 information used for appropriate actions for future use of the land
Examples: land use maps, zoning maps, cadastral surveys, land ownership
society 016 characteristics of society and cultures
Examples: settlements, anthropology, archaeology, education, demographic data, recreational areas and activities, social impact assessments, crime and justice, census information
structure 017 man-made construction
Examples: buildings, museums, churches, factories, housing, monuments, shops
transportation 018 means and aids for conveying persons and/or goods
Examples: roads, airports/airstrips, shipping routes, tunnels, nautical charts, vehicle or vessel location, aeronautical charts, railways
utilitiesCommunication 019 energy, water and waste systems and communications infrastructure and services
Examples: sources of energy, water purification and distribution, sewage collection and disposal, electricity and gas distribution, data communication, telecommunication, radio
Guidance
  1. Select one or more categories that most closely represent the topic of the data resource.
  2. If in doubt, go by the topic categories rather than the examples.
  3. It is not necessary to include all categories which may be applicable, but only a limited number of most relevant should be chosen (e.g. topographic maps should not be classified as farming).
Comment For greater detail within a topic, use the element Keyword
Examples location
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Topic category Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.topicCategory Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:topicCategory/gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode Equivalent
Guidelines
  1. The encoding example for topic category is shown in Example One. Note that it is possible to include more than one topic category.
  2. The value of the XML element gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode must not contain whitespace because the values are specified by an enumerated list in the XSD schemas. The encoding shown in Example Two, for example, will result in an XSD schema validation error because the element content will be parsed as shown in Example 3 (excluding the square brackets denoting the start and end) resulting in a value that does not exist in the enumerated list.
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="OS-234567">
      ...
      <gmd:topicCategory>
	<gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>geoscientificInformation</gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>
      </gmd:topicCategory>
      <gmd:topicCategory>
        <gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>environment</gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>
      </gmd:topicCategory>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed The topic category is a schema controlled list, not plain text. The following example is not valid:
...
<gmd:topicCategory>
  <gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>
    environment
  </gmd:MD_TopicCategoryCode>
</gmd:topicCategory>
...
Name : Keyword
UK GEMINI id 6
Definition Topic of the content of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to indicate the general subject area of the data resource using keywords. This enables searches to eliminate resources that are of no interest. Ideally, a standardised set of keywords should be used, so that resources can be identified in any search. This element is similar to Topic category, which has a coded list of high-level categories, whereas Keyword allows more appropriate terms to describe the data resource.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises the following elements:
  1. Keyword value (mandatory)
  2. Originating controlled vocabulary (conditional - if keywords originate from a controlled vocabulary)
These are specified as follows:
Keyword value Originating controlled vocabulary
Definition topic of the content of the data resource name of the formally registered thesaurus or a similar authoritative source of keywords
Obligation mandatory conditional - required if keywords originate from a controlled vocabulary
Occurrence multiple single
Data type CharacterString Class CI_Citation (from ISO19115)
Domain free text The following properties are expected:
  1. title of type character string (free text)
  2. reference date defined as
    • a date type (creation, revision or publication)
    • an effective date
Other Comments - a default value will generally be assigned for this
Guidance
  1. Keyword values should if possible be taken from a list of standard subject categories, identified in the element 'Originating controlled vocabulary'.
  2. Possible vocabularies include the Integrated Public Sector Vocabulary (IPSV) from the esd-toolkit, which should be used by public sector bodies, and GEMET
  3. For other Keywords, if drawn from a Controlled Vocabulary, this must be stated.
  4. Terms covering the subject of the data resource should be selected.
  5. For conformance with INSPIRE, the keyword should describe the relevant INSPIRE spatial data theme, such as those contained in GEMET INSPIRE;
  6. The formal citation for the vocabulary should be given, including at least the title and reference date.
  7. Acronyms and their expanded versions as separate keywords are acceptable within the Keyword element.
  8. Other standard subject category areas may be used, and different user communities may need to create their own lists of subject areas.
  9. Multiple keywords may be stored in an individual metadata record, and these may come from more than one originating controlled vocabulary.
Comment This element is similar to Topic Category, but allows a broader range of values.
Examples
  • Land cover, General Environmental Multi-Lingual Thesaurus (GEMET)
  • Gazetteer service, General Environmental Multi-Lingual Thesaurus (GEMET)
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata inspire-theme-keyword and additional-keywords Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.descriptiveKeywords > MD_Keywords Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:descriptiveKeywords/gmd:MD_Keywords Equivalent
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from 'Subject'
  2. GEMINI 2.0 to 2.1: expansion to include keyword value and originating controlled vocabulary
Guidelines
  1. The GEMINI2 keyword item comprises keyword value(s) and, conditionally, the specification of an originating controlled vocabulary. If keywords are not selected from a controlled vocabulary the encoding shown in Example One shall be used.
  2. Where keywords do originate from a controlled vocabulary the encoding shown in Example Two shall be used. Note the inclusion of the gmd:thesaurusName XML element which contains the XML element gmd:CI_Citation. This element must contain at least a title, reference date and date type. In the example keywords have been selected from the GEMET Concepts controlled vocabulary.
  3. Metadata records which describe a dataset that relates to one or more of the INSPIRE themes must include the appropriate keyword(s) from the GEMET INSPIRE themes, as illustrated in Example Three.
  4. Examples Two and Three show how the GEMET INSPIRE themes and the GEMET concepts controlled vocabularies should be cited according to the INSPIRE guidance [9].
  5. Note that more than one keyword value may be selected from a single controlled vocabulary. Note also that keywords may be selected from more than one controlled vocabulary. In this case the encoding shown in Example Three.
  6. For INSPIRE if several keywords come from a single controlled vocabulary these shall be grouped together.
  7. For INSPIRE the use of a gmx:Anchor element is recommended over the use gco:CharacterString for terms from controlled vocabularies
  8. An alternative encoding of keywords linked via HTTP URIs is an increasingly common practice amongst metadata publishers. See Example 3 (Datasets/Series) - keywords from 2 controlled vocabularies.
  9. Recommended best practice is to select a human readable value from a controlled vocabulary. An example from the Marine Geospatial community is http://seadatanet.maris2.nl/v_bodc_vocab_v2/search.asp?lib=P02
Example Example One (datasets/series) - without originating controlled vocabulary
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="NERC-54321">
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>satellite imagery</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gco:CharacterString>earth observation</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:keyword>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two (datasets/series) - GEMET concepts
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="EA-100100">
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/concept/9196'>water monitoring</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:keyword>
             <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/concept/9214'>water quality</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='https://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/themes/'>GEMET - Concepts, version 2.4</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
                <gmd:CI_Date>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gco:Date>2010-01-13</gco:Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                        gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Three (datasets/series) - keywords from 2 controlled vocabularies
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="CEH-111111">
      ...
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/concept/9196'>water monitoring</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:keyword>
             <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/concept/9214'>water quality</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='https://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/themes/'>GEMET - Concepts, version 2.4</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
                <gmd:CI_Date>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gco:Date>2010-01-13</gco:Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                        gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      <gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
        <gmd:MD_Keywords>
          <gmd:keyword>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://onto.nerc.ac.uk/CEHMD/topic/11">Land cover</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:keyword>
          <gmd:thesaurusName>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='https://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/en/inspire-themes/'>GEMET - INSPIRE themes, version 1.0</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
                <gmd:CI_Date>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gco:Date>2008-06-01</gco:Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                        ML_gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                      codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:thesaurusName>
        </gmd:MD_Keywords>
      </gmd:descriptiveKeywords>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed Incorrect INSPIRE keywords -
Putting in more than one INSPIRE keyword, where the first keyword in the list is not the correct Annex/Theme
Name : Temporal extent
UK GEMINI id 7
Definition Date for the content of the data resource
Purpose and meaning This is the date or date range that identifies the currency of the data. It may refer to the period of collection, or the date at which it is deemed to be current.
Obligation Mandatory for datasets and dataset series
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Date
Domain Date, or two dates defining the duration of the period, as defined by BS ISO 8601.
Guidance
  1. Dates may be to any degree of precision, from year (YYYY) to full date and time.
  2. The extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) should be used, where YYYY is the year, MM the month and DD the day.
  3. If required, time (HH:MM:SS, where HH is the hour, MM the minute and SS the second) may be added, with T separating the two parts.
  4. Periods are recorded as {fromdate/todate} (e.g. 2006-04-01/2007-03-31). Either fromdate or todate (but not both) may be left blank to indicate uncertainty.
  5. There may be more than one Temporal Extent.
  6. The coarsest resolution allowable is 'year'.
Comment
  1. If the data resource relates to a historic period, then this is part of the subject, e.g. 'cretaceous period'. In this case the date is the date of discovery or observation.
  2. This element should not be confused with Dataset reference date which is an identifying date for the data resource.
  3. Temporal extent is the date of the validity of the data and is different from Dataset reference date which is an identifying date for the data resource. For example, an atlas might represent data collected up to the end of one year, but have a reference date of the following year.
Examples
  • 2001-01-01
  • 2009-05-02T09:10:01
  • 1939/1945
  • /2003-03-31
  • 2000/
  • 19
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Temporal Extent Similar, but in INSPIRE it is optional if another temporal reference is provided.
ISO 19115:2003 EX_Extent > EX_TemporalExtent.extent Identical
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:temporalElement Identical
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Name changed from Date
  2. GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: Coarsest resolution changed from 'century' to 'year'
Guidelines
  1. The basic encoding for temporal extent is shown in Example One (datasets/series). The temporal extent data shall be encoded using the gml:TimePeriod type from the gml namespace. The underlying schemas and standards in fact allow greater flexibility here but for the purposes of GEMINI2 only the gml:TimePeriod XML element and the gml:TimeInstant XML element (for single dates) shall be used. In addition gml:TimePeriod shall contain only gml:beginPosition followed by gml:endPosition. Time positions shall be expressed in the Gregorian calendar and UTC as per BS ISO 8601.
  2. The gml:TimePeriod and gml:TimeInstant XML elements must have an identifier in order to be schema valid. A UUID can be used, as is shown in the Example One (datasets/series). The identifier only needs to be unique in the scope of the metadata instance so a value of 't1' (see Example Two - datasets/series) is acceptable. Allowable content of id attributes:
    • GML XML elements which are used in metadata have a mandatory gml:id attribute. The value domain of the identifier is referred to as XML name. XML names have certain restrictions. They may contain any alphanumeric character, non-English alphanumeric characters, ideograms and the underscore, hyphen and period. They may not contain any other punctuation characters. The colon is allowed, but its use is reserved for namespaces, so it cannot appear in an identifier. XML names may not include any whitespace including spaces and carriage returns. All names beginning with the letters XML (in uppercase, lowercase or any mixture thereof) are reserved.
    • XML names may only start with letters, ideograms and the underscore character. Consequently, care must be taken when using the value of a UUID as the value of an identifier because these can begin with numeric characters. It is normal to append an underscore to the beginning of identifier values where they begin with numbers.
    • Furthermore, an identifier must be unique within the scope of the XML document (i.e. there shall not be more than one id type attribute with a particular identifier value).
    • If an id type attribute contains an illegally formed XML name the result will be a schema validation error.
  3. For format of date and date-time values:
    • Dates and date-time shall be expressed in the Gregorian calendar and UTC as per BS ISO 8601. The formatting shall be as follows, in order of increasing precision:
      • yyyy (e.g. 1995)
      • yyyy-MM (e.g. 1995-01)
      • yyyy-MM-dd (e.g. 1995-01-25)
      • yyyy-MM-ddThh:mm:ss (e.g. 1995-01-25T12:01:55)
    • The BS ISO 8601 encoding also allows negative dates to represent BC. However, gco:Date and gco:DateTime XML elements do not accept negative values.
    • The GEMINI2 standard states that temporal extents may be given with as coarse a granularity as century (e.g. yy or 19). However, unfortunately this cannot be encoded in ISO 19139 XML and will result in a schema validation error. The lowest level of granularity allowable is the year.
  4. GEMINI2 allows for uncertainty in the temporal extent so that one or other, but not both, begin position or end position may be blank. The corresponding encoding in this case makes use of the indeterminatePosition attribute which may take a value of 'unknown' (Example Three for datasets/series). The indeterminatePosition attribute may also take the following values:
    • 'now': in which case the current date will be taken as the value
      the now value must be used for an ongoing end position (INSPIRE)
    • 'before': in which case the actual date is unknown but known to be before the specified date
    • 'after': in which case the actual date is unknown but known to be after the specified date
  5. Example Four shows encoding examples using these values.
Example Example One (datasets/series) : (gml:TimePeriod)
            
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="ABC-123456">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
  	    ...
	    <gmd:temporalElement>
              <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
                <gmd:extent>
	          <gml:TimePeriod gml:id='_70093470-47df-45ce-b33a-60450e251c4c'>
	            <gml:beginPosition>2009-01-01</gml:beginPosition>
	            <gml:endPosition>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>
	          </gml:TimePeriod>
              </gmd:extent>
            </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
          </gmd:temporalElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two (datasets/series): (gml:TimeInstant)
                  
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="ABC-234567">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
  	  ...
	  <gmd:temporalElement>
	    <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
	      <gmd:extent>
	        <gml:TimeInstant gml:id='t1'>
	  	  <gml:timePosition>2011-04-20</gml:timePosition>
	        </gml:TimeInstant>
	      </gmd:extent>
	    </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
	  </gmd:temporalElement>
	  ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Three (datasets/series): unknown dates
<gmd:temporalElement>
  <gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
    <gmd:extent>
      <gml:TimePeriod gml:id='_184029eb-4865-4503-9631-e51ab1f23588'>
        <gml:beginPosition>2009-01-01</gml:beginPosition>
        <gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='unknown' />
      </gml:TimePeriod>
    </gmd:extent>
  </gmd:EX_TemporalExtent>
</gmd:temporalElement>
Example Four: other unkown or unspecified dates
<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='now'/>
<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='before'>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>
<gml:endPosition indeterminatePosition='after'>2010-01-25</gml:endPosition>
No error information available
Name : Dataset reference date
UK GEMINI id 8
Definition Reference date for the data resource
Purpose and meaning Dataset reference date is an identifying date for the data resource. It is a notional date of 'publication' of the data resource. It is different from Temporal extent which is the actual date of the currency of the data. For example, an atlas might have the reference date '2007', but the data will have been collected over a period prior to this.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises two elements:
  • Date as defined by BS ISO 8601
  • Date type (publication/revision/creation).
The extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) defined in BS ISO 8601 should be used, where YYYY is the year, MM is the month and DD is the day. It may be extended to include time (HH:MM:SS), where HH is the hour, MM the minutes and SS the seconds, with the two parts separated by the character 'T'.
Date Date Type
Definition date used to reference data resource event used to describe reference date
Obligation mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single
Data type Date CodeList
Domain date as defined in ISO8601 Values are:
  • creation
  • publication
  • revision
Guidance
  1. Dates may be to any degree of precision, from year (YYYY) to full date and time. The extended date format (YYYY-MM-DD) defined in BS ISO 8601 should be used, where YYYY is the year, MM the month and DD the day. It may be extended to include time (-HH:MM:SS, where HH is the hour, MM the minute and SS the second), with 'T' separating the two parts.
  2. Identify whether date refers to creation, last revision or publication.
  3. More than one Dataset Reference Date may be defined, but there must only be one of type 'creation' and only one of type 'revision'
  4. The date should be completed to a resolution sufficient to identify the version. Thus if the data resource is updated annually, only a year is required, whilst if it is updated weekly, a day is required.
  5. If the resource is continuously updated or is a dataset series (e.g. a map series), then a notional current date should be provided at a suitable level of resolution.
Comment INSPIRE recommends that at least the date of the last revision should be reported for spatial datasets
Examples
  • 2001, publication
  • 2005-05, publication
  • 1997-10-01, publication
  • 2009-05-02T09:10:01, publication
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Date of publication Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.date Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:date Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Addition of date type
Guidelines
  • The encoding for dataset reference date is shown in Example One.
  • Dates may be expressed with low precision, as shown in the example. GEMINI2 also allows the date and time to be published in metadata. In this case the date encoding shown in Example Two must be used.
  • The format of date and date-time values is described at Dates and Times
  • Dataset reference date shall include a date type. The content of this XML element is drawn from a code list.
Example Example One (datasets/series): dataset reference date encoding example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BCD-012345">
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          ...
          <gmd:date>
            <gmd:CI_Date>
              <gmd:date>
                <gco:Date>1995</gco:Date>
              </gmd:date>
              <gmd:dateType>
                <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                    codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                    codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
              </gmd:dateType>
            </gmd:CI_Date>
          </gmd:date>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - date and time
...
<gmd:date>
  <gco:DateTime>1995-06-10T12:30:59</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:date>
...
Errors observed Confusion of Date and DateTime
In ISO 19115, Date and DateTime are distinct types. Although in many elements, either is allowed, the XML encoding needs to be explicit about which is given. It is an error to put a date (such as 2010-05-12) in a DateTime element.
Example of invalid structure:
      
<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:DateTime>2012-11-15</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:dateStamp>
       
This should either include the time, for example:
<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:DateTime>2012-11-15T13:50:38</gco:DateTime>
</gmd:dateStamp>
       
Or be explicit that it doesn't:
<gmd:dateStamp>
  <gco:Date>2012-11-15</gco:Date>
</gmd:dateStamp>
Name : Lineage
UK GEMINI id 10
Definition Information about the events or source data used in the construction of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to give an indication of how the data resource was created. It is useful in determining its fitness for purpose.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. Some information should be provided. Include statements on the following:
    • source material
    • processes used to create the data, including resolution of measurement
    • method of updating
    • any quality control processes
  2. Acronyms should be expanded to the full name along with the abbreviated version at the beginning of the lineage. The abbreviated version can then be used.
Comment This element is similar to Abstract, and some information may be included in either element.
Further details included in an external file may be referenced under Additional information.
Examples Addresses are taken from the Postcode Address File (PAF) and the property found on the large-scale Ordnance Survey map. The coordinates of an approximate centroid for the property are recorded to a resolution of 1 metre. The dataset is updated from the PAF monthly updates. All results are checked by plotting a group of related addresses on the map and visually checking for errors.
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Lineage Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality.lineage > LI_Lineage.statement Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:lineage Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Made mandatory for datasets and dataset series to conform to INSPIRE
Guidelines
  1. The encoding for lineage is shown in the example below.
  2. Note that, in addition to the lineage statement, the data quality scope shall be encoded. For dataset metadata instances the MD_ScopeCode code list value shall be 'dataset'. For series metadata instances the code list value shall be 'series'.
  3. For INSPIRE, the lineage statement must appear in the gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality element scoped to the entire described dataset or series
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataQualityInfo>
    <gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
      <gmd:scope>
        <gmd:DQ_Scope>
          <gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
          </gmd:level>
        </gmd:DQ_Scope>
      </gmd:scope>
      <gmd:lineage>
        <gmd:LI_Lineage>
          <gmd:statement>
            <gco:CharacterString>The data shows polygonal and selected linear geological information, sourced from published 
              BGS 1:625 000 scale maps.</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:statement>
        </gmd:LI_Lineage>
      </gmd:lineage>
    </gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
  </gmd:dataQualityInfo>
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Extent
UK GEMINI id 15
Definition Extent of data resource
Purpose and meaning This element defines the geographical extent of coverage of the data resource relative to an administrative hierarchy. It enables searches to be carried out to find data relevant to the area of interest. Extent polygons can be implied through reference to an external gazetteer. Note that Extent is the coverage of the data resource, not the individual objects in the data resource. Thus if the data resource was national parks in England, the Extent would be 'England', even though many parts of England do not have National Parks.
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain The class comprises two elements:
  • (Optional) Authority code
  • Code identifying the extent
Guidance
  1. An area approximating to the extent of coverage of the data resource should be chosen. Where the extent does not coincide with any defined area or areas, then either the nearest equivalent including the area of coverage, or a set of multiple areas that make up the coverage should be provided.
  2. This should not be over-generalised (i.e. do not take it as Great Britain if it only covers England and Wales).
Comment
Examples
  • England
  • East Anglia
  • The Wash
  • http://data.os.uk/id/7000000000041546 Central Scotland, using OS linked data as a gazetteer
  • https://local-authority-eng.register.gov.uk/record/GLA, Greater London Authority, using GDS "Local authorities in England" as a controlled list
  • http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/C64/current/5/, Irish Sea, in the NERC Vocabulary "C64, United Kingdom Charting Progress 2 sea regions"
Revision date August 2010
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_GeographicExtent > EX_ GeographicDescription.geographicIdentifier Identical
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:geographicElement/gmd:EX_GeographicDescription/gmd:geographicIdentifier Identical
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Made optional
Guidelines
  1. The examples shown below use codes (URIs in URL form) from the Ordnance Survey Linked Data [22] boundary data. The code element can be used as a URL returning a page on the internet providing further information. The code in Example One, ending in 7000000000041546, is the URL for Central Scotland. Associated with this code is further information, such as the geometry of Central Scotland.
  2. The entity responsible for managing the extent code can be expressed in GEMINI metadata. An example of the encoding is shown in Example Two
  3. Recommended best practice is to select a human readable value from a controlled vocabulary. An example from the Marine Geospatial community is http://seadatanet.maris2.nl/v_bodc_vocab_v2/search.asp?lib=C19
  4. INSPIRE recommendations for encoding free text values which reference a specific external resource or registry is to use gmx:Anchor instead of gco:CharacterString
Note that the extent XML element is in the gmd namespace for datasets/series. This differs from service metadata instances where the extent XML element will be in the srv namespace.
Example Example One (datasets/series)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="OS-415463">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
              <gmd:geographicIdentifier>
                <gmd:MD_Identifier>
                  <gmd:code>
                    <gco:CharacterString>http://data.os.uk/id/7000000000041546</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:code>
                </gmd:MD_Identifier>
              </gmd:geographicIdentifier>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two (datasets/series) - Extent encoding example with authority
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="OS-IOIOIO">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
              <gmd:geographicIdentifier>
                <gmd:MD_Identifier>
                  <gmd:authority>
                    <gmd:CI_Citation>
                      <gmd:title>
                        <gco:CharacterString>Ordnance Survey Linked Data</gco:CharacterString>
                      </gmd:title>
                      <gmd:date>
                        <gmd:CI_Date>
                          <gmd:date>
                            <gco:Date>2010-10-25</gco:Date>
                          </gmd:date>
                          <gmd:dateType>
                             <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                               codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                               codeListValue='revision'>revision</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                          </gmd:dateType>
                        </gmd:CI_Date>
                      </gmd:date>
                    </gmd:CI_Citation>
                  </gmd:authority>
                  <gmd:code>
                    <gco:CharacterString>http://data.os.uk/id/7000000000017765</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:code>
                </gmd:MD_Identifier>
              </gmd:geographicIdentifier>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicDescription>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Vertical extent information
UK GEMINI id 16
Definition Vertical domain of the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to describe the vertical range of the data resource (where relevant).
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain EX_VerticalExtent, which comprises of three elements
minimum value maximum value coordinate reference system
Definition lowest vertical extent contained in the data resource highest vertical extent contained in the data resource vertical coordinate reference system to which the maximum and minimum values are measured
Obligation mandatory mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single single
Data type real real class
Domain real number real number The class comprises two elements:
  • Authority code (optional)
  • Identifier of the coordinate reference system
Other comments - - For example, code provided in the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry
Guidance
  1. Minimum value: Identify approximate lowest vertical extent in the specified coordinate reference system
  2. Maximum value: Identify approximate highest vertical extent in the specified coordinate reference system
  3. Coordinate reference system: Identify coordinate reference system used for the vertical extent measurements. This should be recorded as a name or as a code, for example as provided in the EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry produced by The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (see http://www.epsg-registry.org/)
Comment This element should be used only where vertical extent is significant, e.g. in geology, mining, meteorology etc.
Examples
  • Minimum value: -100.0
  • Maximum value: 0.0
  • Coordinate reference system: height in metres above Newlyn Datum
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata None
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_VerticalExtent Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:verticalElement Equivalent
  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: made optional;
    occurrence changed from multiple to single;
    description of class EX_VerticalExtent changed to match change to ISO 19115.
  • GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: made multiple again
Guidelines
  1. The encoding of the vertical extent information is explained. The vertical extent information is expressed by a minimum and maximum coordinate value and a vertical CRS. The vertical CRS expresses the CRS of the vertical extent coordinates alone. It does not necessarily express the vertical CRS to which vertical coordinates in the data are referenced - in other words it is possible that the vertical extent is defined in a different CRS from the vertical CRS of the data. This is convenient if it were the case that datasets within a domain were referenced to many different vertical CRSs because it could be decided that all vertical extents in metadata are to be referenced to a single common vertical CRS to aid searching or understanding by users. Searching by vertical extent, referenced to different vertical CRSs, across metadata sets would be complicated by the need to undertake many coordinate operations - which is not necessarily a trivial task - or even possible in all cases.
  2. The CRS of vertical extent elements must be provided in order to give meaning to the minimum and maximum coordinates. From the CRS, for example, it is possible to determine the orientation of the coordinate system axis (i.e. do positive values increase upwards or downwards from the zero reference) and the units of the coordinate values.
  3. There are two approaches to encoding the vertical CRS: by reference (Example One) or by value (Example Two). These examples express the same information: that the vertical extent coordinates are referenced to Ordnance Datum (Newlyn). Codes and GML CRS data are from the EPSG Registry.
  4. Additionally, the gco:nilReason attribute can be used if the vertical CRS is unknown (Example Three) but this renders the vertical extent information ambiguous at best. Consequently it would be better to refrain from including vertical extent information in the metadata instance altogether.
Example Example One (datasets/series) - Vertical CRS by reference
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="XYZ-000010">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:verticalElement>
            <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
              <gmd:minimumValue>
                <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
              </gmd:minimumValue>
              <gmd:maximumValue>
                <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
              </gmd:maximumValue>
              <gmd:verticalCRS xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/5701'/>
            </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
          </gmd:verticalElement>
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two (datasets/series) - Vertical CRS by value
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataIdentification>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="XYZ-101010">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          ...
          <gmd:verticalElement>
            <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
              <gmd:minimumValue>
                <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
              </gmd:minimumValue>
              <gmd:maximumValue>
                <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
              </gmd:maximumValue>
              <gmd:verticalCRS>
                <gml:VerticalCRS gml:id='epsg-crs-5701'>
                  <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>
                    urn:ogc:def:crs:EPSG::5701</gml:identifier>
                  <gml:name>ODN height</gml:name>
                  <gml:scope>Geodetic and engineering surveying.</gml:scope>
                  <gml:verticalCS>
                    <gml:VerticalCS gml:id='epsg-cs-6499'>
                      <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:cs:EPSG::6499</gml:identifier>
                      <gml:name>Vertical CS. Axis: height (H). Orientation: up. UoM: m.</gml:name>
                      <gml:remarks>Used in vertical coordinate reference systems.</gml:remarks>
                      <gml:axis>
                        <gml:CoordinateSystemAxis gml:id='epsg-axis-114' gml:uom='urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001'>
                          <gml:descriptionReference xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/9904'/>
                          <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:axis:EPSG::114</gml:identifier>
                          <gml:axisAbbrev>H</gml:axisAbbrev>
                          <gml:axisDirection codeSpace='EPSG'>up</gml:axisDirection>
                        </gml:CoordinateSystemAxis>
                      </gml:axis>
                    </gml:VerticalCS>
                  </gml:verticalCS>
                  <gml:verticalDatum>
                    <gml:VerticalDatum gml:id='epsg-datum-5101'>
                      <gml:identifier codeSpace='OGP'>urn:ogc:def:datum:EPSG::5101</gml:identifier>
                      <gml:name>Ordnance Datum Newlyn</gml:name>
                      <gml:remarks>Orthometric heights.</gml:remarks>
                      <gml:scope>Topographic mapping, geodetic survey.</gml:scope>
                      <gml:anchorDefinition>Mean Sea Level at Newlyn between 1915 and 1921.</gml:anchorDefinition>
                    </gml:VerticalDatum>
                  </gml:verticalDatum>
                </gml:VerticalCRS>
              </gmd:verticalCRS>
            </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
          </gmd:verticalElement>
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:dataIdentification>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Three - Vertical CRS unknown
<gmd:verticalElement>
  <gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
    <gmd:minimumValue>
      <gco:Real>42</gco:Real>
    </gmd:minimumValue>
    <gmd:maximumValue>
      <gco:Real>94</gco:Real>
    </gmd:maximumValue>
    <gmd:verticalCRS gco:nilReason='unknown'/>
  </gmd:EX_VerticalExtent>
</gmd:verticalElement>
No error information available
Name : Spatial reference system
UK GEMINI id 17
Definition Identifier, name or description of the system of spatial referencing, whether by coordinates or geographic identifiers, used in the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to identify the way in which the data is spatially referenced in the data resource. This may be by coordinates (e.g. the National Grid of Great Britain) or geographic identifiers (e.g. unit postcodes).
Obligation At least one coordinate reference system shall be given
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain The class comprises two elements:
  • Code identifying the spatial reference system
  • (Conditional) codeSpace,
    - to be used if the code alone does not uniquely identify the referred spatial reference system.
    - not to be used if the spatial reference system is listed in the Default Coordinate Reference Systems
Guidance
  1. For each spatial reference system
    • Identify the spatial reference systems used to spatially reference the data in the data resource;
    • Check if the spatial reference system is listed in Annex D.4 (Default Coordinate Reference Systems) of the INSPIRE Metadata Technical Guidelines
  2. If the spatial reference system is not listed in the defaults, identify a well-known register that defines the coordinate reference system or, if the spatial reference system is using geographic identifiers (such as Post Codes, NUTS, what3words, Geohashing), supply a resolveable HTTP-URI that provides more information about the geographic identifier system.
  3. Where there appears to be more than one spatial reference system used, take the one that is used in resolving any conflict between the spatial referencing systems (e.g. if the data is recorded referenced by unit postcodes, and a coordinate is then associated, then unit postcode is the spatial reference system, whereas if the data is recorded by coordinate, and unit postcodes are added as an attribute, then it is 'National Grid of Great Britain').
Comment
  1. Only coordinate reference systems identifiers specified in a well-known common register shall be used
  2. Note that the data resource may be supplied in a range of other reference systems in addition to that in which it is recorded.
Examples British National Grid
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata crs coordinate reference system Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_ReferenceSystem.referenceSystemIdentifier > RS_Identifier.code Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 gmd:referenceSystemInfo/gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem/gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier/gmd:RS_identifier Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Changed from enumerated list
Guidelines
  • When the provided text is a term or code from an externally defined explanation or registry value, gmx:Anchor should be used instead of gco:CharacterString
  • The content of gmx:Anchor or gco:CharacterString must not be empty
Example Example One - using gmx:Anchor for a default Coordinate Reference System (as defined in Annex D.4 of the INSPIRE metadata technical guidance v.2)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
    <gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
      <gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
        <gmd:RS_Identifier>
          <gmd:code>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4258'>
            2D geodetic in ETRS89 on GRS80 (Latitude, Longitude) / ETRS89-GRS80</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:code>
        </gmd:RS_Identifier>
      </gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
    </gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
  </gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - using gmx:Anchor for a non default CRS.
<referenceSystemInfo>
  <MD_ReferenceSystem>
    <referenceSystemIdentifier>
      <RS_Identifier>
        <code>
          <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/27700'>
            British National Grid (EPSG::27700)</gmx:Anchor>
        </code>
      </RS_Identifier>
    </referenceSystemIdentifier>
  </MD_ReferenceSystem>
</referenceSystemInfo>

Example Three - encoding example with authority

<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
    <gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
      <gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
        <gmd:RS_Identifier>
          <gmd:authority>
            <gmd:CI_Citation>
              <gmd:title>
                <gco:CharacterString>EPSG Geodetic Parameter Registry</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:title>
              <gmd:date>
               <gmd:CI_Date>
                 <gmd:date>
                   <gco:Date>2010-11-02</gco:Date>
                 </gmd:date>
                  <gmd:dateType>
                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                      codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                        codeListValue='revision'>revision</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                  </gmd:dateType>
                </gmd:CI_Date>
              </gmd:date>
            </gmd:CI_Citation>
          </gmd:authority>
          <gmd:code>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4258'>
            EPSG:4258</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:code>
        </gmd:RS_Identifier>
      </gmd:referenceSystemIdentifier>
    </gmd:MD_ReferenceSystem>
  </gmd:referenceSystemInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example Four - encoding example for spatial reference systems using geographic identifiers

<referenceSystemInfo>
  <MD_ReferenceSystem>
    <referenceSystemIdentifier>
      <RS_Identifier>
        <code>
          <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.postcodeaddressfile.co.uk/products/postcodes/postcodes_table_list.htm'>
            UK Postcodes</gmx:Anchor>
        </code>
      </RS_Identifier>
    </referenceSystemIdentifier>
  </MD_ReferenceSystem>
</referenceSystemInfo>
No error information available
Name : Spatial resolution
UK GEMINI id 18
Definition Measure of the granularity of the data (in metres)
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to provide an indication of how detailed the spatial data is. It is equivalent to the ground sample distance. It should not be confused with the scale of a map which is purely a display attribute (the spatial resolution should be defined in the specification of the data resource).
Obligation Conditional - where a resolution distance can be specified
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Real
Domain Value > 0
Guidance
  1. For data capture in the field, it is the precision at which the data is captured. This may be the accuracy for topographic surveys, or the average sampling distance in an environmental survey.
  2. For data taken from maps, it is the positional accuracy of the map (defined in the specification of the map series).
  3. For image data, it is the resolution of the image.
  4. In many given cases, only approximate values can be given.
Comment This should not be confused with precision which refers to the resolution of the measurements themselves. Thus for a buildings dataset, a building seed could be recorded to a precision of 0.1 metres, but since the requirement is for the seed only to be within the building footprint for the purpose of discriminating between buildings, the spatial resolution of the buildings dataset would be the typical size of the building, i.e. about 10 metres.
Examples
  • 10.0
  • 0.001
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial resolution INSPIRE allows the option of either Distance or Equivalent scale.
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.spatialResolution > MD_Resolution.distance Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:spatialResolution Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: made conditional
Guidelines
  1. The encoding example for spatial resolution is shown in the example below.
  2. A distance measurement shall be encoded and the unit of measurement shall be identified. The unit of measurement is identified using the uom attribute of the XML element gco:Distance. In the case of GEMINI2 all spatial resolution distance measurements shall be in metres. The value of the uom attribute shall be: urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001
  3. This defines the unit of measure as metres by reference to the EPSG registry [12].
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="OS-100100">
      ...
      <gmd:spatialResolution>
        <gmd:MD_Resolution>
          <gmd:distance>
            <gco:Distance uom='urn:ogc:def:uom:EPSG::9001'>20</gco:Distance>
          </gmd:distance>
        </gmd:MD_Resolution>
      </gmd:spatialResolution>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Resource locator
UK GEMINI id 19
Definition Location (address) for online access using a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) address or similar addressing scheme
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to point to where the dataset, or dataset series may be directly accessed online
OR, if no direct access is available, to an online resource providing more information about accessing the dataset or dataset series.
Obligation Conditional - Must be supplied when online access is available
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Valid URL
Guidance
  1. Identify whether the resource may be accessed.
  2. Determine the location of the resource (may be a URL).
  3. The URL of a DOI landing page should be given as a Resource locator with a CI_OnlineFunctionCode value of "information".
  4. If no online access for the dataset or dataset series is available, but there is a publicly available online resource providing additional information about how to access the dataset of dataset series being described, the URL pointing to this shall be given instead.
  5. Although not mandatory, the following ISO 19115 sub-elements should be included, for best results with data.gov.uk:
    • function (if provided, the gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode element should point to one of the values of the ISO 19139 code list CI_OnLineFunctionCode)
    • name (this appears on the data.gov.uk site)
    • description (data.gov.uk uses this if no 'name' provided)
Comment The URL provided as the value of the gmd:linkage element should point to one of following type of resources:
  • direct access for downloading the described dataset
  • a service metadata (capabilities) document of a Spatial Data Service used for providing this dataset
  • a service WSDL document of a Spatial Data Service used for providing this data set
  • a client application that directly accesses the described dataset
  • a web page with further instructions for accessing the described dataset
Examples A DOI landing page: http://doi.org/10.5285/1e7d5e08-9e24-471b-ae37-49b477f695e3
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Resource locator Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Distribution > MD_DigitalTransferOptions.online > CI_OnlineResource.linkage Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:distributionInfo/gmd:MD_Distribution/gmd:transferOptions/gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions/gmd:onLine/gmd:CI_OnlineResource/gmd:linkage Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Modification of Online resource
Guidelines
  1. The two examples illustrate different uses of Resource locator. Example one gives direct access to the dataset. Example two gives the location of further information about ordering the dataset. ISO 19115 and the ISO 19139 encoding provides a means of indicating the function of the online resource using the CI_OnLineFunctionCode code list. Two values from this code list provide a means of discriminating between a URL that is provided for information (code list value of 'information') and a URL that is the address used for downloading (code list value of 'download') the data.
  2. The gmd:transferOptions XML element of gmd:MD_Distribution is used to encode a URL. Note that it is necessary to encode distribution format information in all cases. If the URL that is provided is the location of a point of contact then the distribution format is moot. However, the distribution format property is required by an ISO 19115 constraint. In this case the INSPIRE guidelines show the encoding using gmd:MD_Format. Note that the element gmd:MD_Distribution must have the element gmd:distributionFormat as its first child according to a constraint in ISO 19115. Format information may not always be known in which case the encoding of the element gmd:MD_Format shown in Example One shall be used, following the INSPIRE guidance [9]. If the format and version values are known, then they should be given (see Data format).
Example Example one, showing only required linkage content (for a dataset)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        <gmd:MD_Format>
          <gmd:name>
            <gco:CharacterString>Unknown</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:name>
          <gmd:version gco:nilReason="inapplicable" />
        </gmd:MD_Format>
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>http://ogc.bgs.ac.uk/dppp/wmc/digmap625.xml</gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example two - including name, description, and indication of function (for a dataset ordering page)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        ...
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
      <gmd:transferOptions>
        <gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
          <gmd:onLine>
            <gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
              <gmd:linkage>
                <gmd:URL>https://os.uk/opendatadownload/products.html</gmd:URL>
              </gmd:linkage>
              <gmd:name>
                <gco:CharacterString>Order OS OpenData</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:name>
              <gmd:description>
                <gco:CharacterString>general ordering page for all OS Open Data</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:description>
              <gmd:function>
                <gmd:CI_OnLineFunctionCode 
                  codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_OnLineFunctionCode' 
                  codeListValue='information'/>
              </gmd:function>
            </gmd:CI_OnlineResource>
          </gmd:onLine>
        </gmd:MD_DigitalTransferOptions>
      </gmd:transferOptions>
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed In a Resource Locator, a WMS service that does not end in an ampersand or question mark is incorrect, for example:
<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>
Should be:
<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer?service=WMS&request=GetCapabilities&</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>
or:
<gmd:linkage>
  <gmd:URL>https://map.bgs.ac.uk/ArcGIS/services/BGS_Detailed_Geology/MapServer/WMSServer?</gmd:URL>
</gmd:linkage>

Defra metadata audit, October 2015: Very few records included direct links to WMS end points.
Name : Data format
UK GEMINI id 21
Definition Format in which the digital data is provided
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to identify the various options for data formats that may be provided.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class MD_Format from ISO 19115
Domain The following properties are expected:
  • name of format
  • version of format (date, number etc)
Guidance
  1. Entries should be recognised formats for data transfer, either standard or proprietary.
  2. Recommended best practice is to use a human readable term from a controlled vocabulary.
  3. If the data resource is not downloadable (e.g. is view only), then this should be stated.
Comment If the version of the data encoding is unknown or not versioned, a nil reason attribute shall be specified with either "unknown" or "inapplicable" values used correspondingly.
Examples
  • GML, 3.2.1
  • DTF, 6.3
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Data encoding Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Distribution.distributionFormat > MD_Format ISO 19115 has this element single valued
ISO 19139:2007 gmd:distributionFormat/gmd:MD_Format
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: made optional
  2. GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: made mandatory, but removed from services
Guidelines Both a gmd:name and gmd:version shall be provided for the format
Example Example One
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:distributionInfo>
    <gmd:MD_Distribution>
      <gmd:distributionFormat>
        <gmd:MD_Format>
          <gmd:name>
            <gco:CharacterString>GML</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:name>
          <gmd:version>
            <gco:CharacterString>3.2.1</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:version>
        </gmd:MD_Format>
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_Distribution>
  </gmd:distributionInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - unknown version
   ...
     <gmd:distributionFormat>
        <gmd:MD_Format>
          <gmd:name>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="https://inspire.ec.europa.eu/media-types/application/x-shapefile">Esri shapefile</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:name>
          <gmd:version gco:nilReason="unknown"/> 
        </gmd:MD_Format>
      </gmd:distributionFormat>
      ...
Errors observed No Format provided -
ISO 19139 requires that a format is given, either within the 'distribution' section or the 'distributor' section.
INSPIRE & UK GEMINI encoding guidance only expects the distribution section, as the place to encode the Resource locator,
which effectively renders distribution format mandatory.
Name : Responsible organisation
UK GEMINI id 23
Definition Details of the organisation(s) responsible for the establishment, management, maintenance and distribution of the data resource
Purpose and meaning This informs the user about who is responsible for the data resource
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises eight elements relating to the responsible organisation:
Metadata element name Definition Obligation Occurrence Data type Domain Rules for how to fill in the entry
contact position role or position of the responsible person optional single CharacterString free text A general job title or generic role should be identified for someone in a position of responsibility for the data resource.
Do not identify an individual by name, as this is subject to change without warning and the information is impossible to keep up-to-date.
organisation name name of organisation mandatory single CharacterString free text The name of the organisation should be given in full, without abbreviations
postal address postal address of the organisation optional single CharacterString free text The full formal postal address (as defined for example by Royal Mail) should be given, including the postcode.
telephone number telephone number by which individuals can talk to the organisation or individual optional single CharacterString free text The full telephone number should be given.
email address internet email address which individuals can use to contact the organisation or individual mandatory single CharacterString free text A valid email address should be given. Do not provide a personal email address.
web address World Wide Web address of organisation optional single CharacterString free text A valid World Wide Web address should be given.
responsible party role role of the responsible organisation mandatory multiple CodeList see INSPIRE registry The role of the responsible party should be identified.
For datasets and dataset series, at least a distributor should be given.
Guidance
  1. The organisation name, email address and responsible party role are mandatory. Other entries should only be given that are relevant and known.
  2. Where no single individual is responsible, a generic role may be given.
  3. Where there are multiple Distributors / Responsible Organisations, then a separate entry should be given for each.
  4. For dataset and dataset series, one of the Responsible Organisations must be in the role of Distributor (If there is only one Responsible Organisation recorded, then it must be in the role of Distributor.).
  5. Where there are several distributors, a separate entry should be given for each.
  6. For best result with data.gov.uk:
    • Enter 'Owner' for UK Location Data Provider role.
    • Enter 'Publisher' For UK Location Data Publisher role.
    These appear in the data.gov.uk search results.
  7. If the data was created by someone other than the Data Provider, this should also be recorded, using the role value 'Originator'.
Comment Facsimile number is no longer required
Examples See individual elements below.
Metadata element name Purpose and Meaning Examples
contact position Role or post of the person to contact in the organisation The mapping product manager
organisation name Ordnance Survey, Great Britain
postal address Adanac Drive, Southampton, United Kingdom, SO16 0AS
telephone number +44 8456 050505
email address This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
web address for further information about the organisation http://os.uk
responsible party role indicates whether this responsible party is acting as distributor, publisher, author, etc. distributor
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Responsible party Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.pointOfContact Similar high-level class
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:pointOfContact/gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: This has been generalised from Distributor (and Originator) to cover a range of possible roles, by the addition of 'responsible party role' and minor errors in the class details have been corrected.
Guidelines
  1. The encoding example for responsible organisation is shown below. The example shows the minimum required information.
  2. The format of address and contact information is described at Responsible party, with a more fully populated example.
  3. Note on role code: the UK Location portal (data.gov.uk site) interprets ISO 'owner' as Data Provider, and ISO 'publisher' as Data Publisher.
Example Example One (datasets/series)
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="SZ-OO53">
      ...
      <gmd:pointOfContact>
        <gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
          <gmd:organisationName>
            <gco:CharacterString>SeaZone Solutions</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:organisationName>
          <gmd:contactInfo>
            <gmd:CI_Contact>
              <gmd:address>
                <gmd:CI_Address>
                  <gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                    <gco:CharacterString>This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:electronicMailAddress>
                </gmd:CI_Address>
              </gmd:address>
            </gmd:CI_Contact>
          </gmd:contactInfo>
          <gmd:role>
            <gmd:CI_RoleCode 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#CI_RoleCode' 
              codeListValue='distributor'>distributor</gmd:CI_RoleCode>
          </gmd:role>
        </gmd:CI_ResponsibleParty>
      </gmd:pointOfContact>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Limitations on public access
UK GEMINI id 25
Definition Restrictions imposed on accessing the data resource for security and other reasons
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to identify any external restrictions on access to the data such as licence arrangements.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. Provide information on any limitations.
  2. The most common access restriction should be identified.
  3. Where there are no limitations on public access, this should be stated.
  4. More than one value may be included.
  5. For INSPIRE: If no limitations apply, enter 'No limitations'.
Comment Limitations on public access are different from Use constraints which are warnings about its suitability for particular types of usage, or constraints on the use that can be made of the data.
Examples No restriction on public access.
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Limitations on public access Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.resourceConstraints > MD_LegalConstraints.accessConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:accessConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change of name from 'access constraint', and modification of definition.
    Made mandatory, to conform to INSPIRE.
  2. GEMINI 2.0 to 2.1: Change to equivalent ISO 19115 element from accessConstraint making domain free text.
  3. GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: Change of encoding
Guidelines
  1. This element shall be encoded in a different resourceConstraints/MD_LegalConstraints XML element to GEMINI element 26 Use constraints
  2. The LegalConstraints element shall contain a accessConstraints/MD_RestrictionCode element with code list value "otherRestrictions"
  3. The LegalConstraints element shall also contain a gmd:otherConstraints element, with free text.
  4. If there are no limitations the value of gmd:otherConstraints shall be 'no limitations' (see Example Two).
  5. The free text shall be encoded in a gmx:Anchor element, with xlink:href pointing to the relevant kind of limitation from the INSPIRE Metadata registry: http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess
  6. Free text content cannot be empty
  7. There may be more than one gmd:otherConstraints element
Example Example One
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="DEF-2000">
      ...
      <gmd:resourceConstraints>
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          ...
          <gmd:accessConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
            codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
            codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:accessConstraints>
          <gmd:otherConstraints>
            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess/INSPIRE_Directive_Article13_1e">
            [Document other restrictions here - the example 1e covers IPR]</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
      </gmd:resourceConstraints>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - no limitations
...
<gmd:otherConstraints>
  <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/LimitationsOnPublicAccess/noLimitations">no limitations</gmx:Anchor>
</gmd:otherConstraints>
...
Errors observed Missing or incorrect information
Licence information should be provided, preferably by a URL.
It is an error to state 'no limitations' in Limitations on Public Access, when the resource is not open access.
Defra metadata audit, October 2015: In many cases either this field has been left empty or where the PSMA (or similar) licensing arrangements are referenced there is either a lack of detail or no links to the appropriate sites.
Name : Use constraints
UK GEMINI id 26
Definition Restrictions and legal restraints on using the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to describe any restrictions on usage of the data (as opposed to access)
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. Provide information on any constraints to using the resource, e.g. licensing, fees, usage restrictions, or refer to a URL where this information is available, e.g. a licence document. If entering a URL, enter this as a sub-element, not as part of free text. Where relevant, Data Provider licence information should be provided in the form of a Licence Title, and where possible, a licence URL. If more than one type of licence is included then the URL should point to a Data Providers page.
  2. Any known constraints should be identified. If no conditions apply, then 'no conditions apply' should be recorded.
Comment Use constraints are different from Restrictions on public access which describe limitations on access to the data. A data resource can have open access (e.g. to look at it), but restricted use.
Examples Should not be used for navigation purposes.
Revision date September 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Conditions applying to access and use Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.resourceConstraints > MD_LegalConstraints.useConstraints & otherConstraints Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:resourceConstraints/gmd:MD_LegalConstraints/gmd:useConstraints & gmd:otherConstraints Equivalent
  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Change to free text field from enumerated list, and making mandatory to conform with INSPIRE.
  • GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: Change of encoding
Guidelines
  1. This element shall be encoded in a different resourceConstraints/MD_LegalConstraints XML element to GEMINI element 25 Limitations on public access
  2. The MD_LegalConstraints element shall contain a useConstraints element
  3. Note: INSPIRE allows an accessConstraints element here; GEMINI recommends using Limitations on public access for these
  4. The useConstraints element shall contain an MD_RestrictionCode element with code list value "otherRestrictions"
  5. The LegalConstraints element shall also contain a gmd:otherConstraints element, with free text.
  6. "No conditions" and "conditions unknown" shall be specified using a gmx:Anchor link to the relevant entry in the INSPIRE metadata registry, http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/ConditionsApplyingToAccessAndUse
  7. In certain circumstances it might be appropriate to refer to an external document describing constraints. In this case the encoding shown in Example Two may be used. This is recommended for licenses, even the use of ISO 19115 otherRestrictions would not generally include license restrictions, as they have their own term in the ISO 19115 code list.
  8. If there are no limitations the value of gmd:otherConstraints shall be 'no limitations' (see Example Three).
  9. There may be more than one gmd:otherConstraints element
Example Example One
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="bgs-0000-1">
      ...
      <gmd:resourceConstraints>
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherContraints>
            <gco:CharacterString>Not to be used for navigation</gco:CharacterString>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
      </gmd:resourceConstraints>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - with external file
...
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherContraints>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3/'>Open Government Licence</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
...
Example Three - no conditions apply
        <gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          <gmd:useConstraints>
            <gmd:MD_RestrictionCode 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_RestrictionCode' 
              codeListValue='otherRestrictions'>otherRestrictions</gmd:MD_RestrictionCode>
          </gmd:useConstraints>
          <gmd:otherContraints>
      <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://inspire.ec.europa.eu/metadata-codelist/ConditionsApplyingToAccessAndUse/noConditionsApply'>no conditions apply</gmx:Anchor>
          </gmd:otherConstraints>
          ...
        </gmd:MD_LegalConstraints>
          
Errors observed Missing or incorrect constraints information
Licence information should be provided, preferably by a URL.
It is an error to state 'no conditions apply' in Use Constraints, when restrictions do in fact exist.
Name : Additional information
UK GEMINI id 27
Definition Other descriptive information about the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this element is to record relevant information that does not clearly belong in another element. This may be a reference (e.g. a URL).
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Single
Data type CharacterString
Domain Free text
Guidance
  1. Information about access to the resource should be in Resource locator.
  2. Information about fees should be in Limitations on public access
  3. Other relevant information should be in this element, or provided by a link which is given in this element.
Comment
Examples For full details about this dataset, see 'https://os.uk/business-and-government/products/addressbase.html'
Revision date October 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata supplemental information
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification > MD_DataIdentification.supplementalInformation Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:supplementalInformation Equivalent
  • GEMINI 3.2 20181031 Rename 'Additional information source' to 'Additional information'
Guidelines No specific rules for this metadata element
Example Example one
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="BGS-625-001">
      ...
      <gmd:supplementalInformation>
        <gco:CharacterString>Ongoing modifications to dataset as appropriate. UK coverage except for western and southern margin 
          of Northern Ireland. As accurate as the underlying geological interpretation. 1:625k scale resolution. Bedrock theme 
          numerically coded. Superficial theme lex-rock coded.
        </gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:supplementalInformation>
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example two - a link, using gmx:Anchor
      <gmd:supplementalInformation>
        <gmx:Anchor> xlink:href="http://www.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsuk/statistics/worldStatistics.html/">Background information</gmx:Anchor>
      </gmd:supplementalInformation>
          
No error information available
Name : Resource identifier
UK GEMINI id 36
Definition Value uniquely identifying the data resource
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this is to uniquely identify the data resource.
Obligation Mandatory for datasets and dataset series
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain The class comprises the following elements:
  • Code - Identifier code or name, often from a controlled list or pattern defined by a code space.
  • Codespace - Identifier of a code space within which one or more codes are defined.
These elements are described in the table below
Metadata element name code codeSpace
Definition Identifier code or name, often from a controlled list or pattern defined by a code pace Identifier of a code space within which one or more codes are defined
Obligation mandatory conditional ~ must be suppled if the code by itself does not uniquely identify the resource.
Occurrence single single
Data type CharacterString CharacterString
Domain free text free text
Other comments - This code space is often defined by some authority organization, were one organization may define multiple code spaces. The range and format of each code space identifier is defined by that code space authority.
Guidance
  1. The code is generally assigned by some authority, with a codespace uniquely identifying the context of the identifier code.
  2. The codespace must be a character string that uniquely identifies the namespace for the identifier code. This should be the internet domain of the data owner/provider,
    e.g.: data.bgs.ac.uk/id/dataHolding/
  3. The resource is identified by a unique identifier code, generally assigned by the data owner. A character string namespace uniquely identifying the context of the identifier code may be added for uniqueness. This is usually allocated by an appropriate authority such as the manager of the spatial data infrastructure.
  4. Where present, a DOI should be recorded as a resource identifier, with the codespace being doi.
Comment Since INSPIRE metadata technical guidance version 2, it is no longer required to use RS_Identifier if a value for code space value is provided.
In such cases (where there is a code space provided) it is now strongly recommended to use MD_Identifier and encode the complete URI in the code element.
Examples
  • image2000_1_nl2_multi
  • doi:10.5285/1e7d5e08-9e24-471b-ae37-49b477f695e3
  • 527c4cac-070c-4bca-9aaf-92bece7be902
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Unique resource identifier Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 MD_Identification.citation > CI_Citation.identifier Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:citation/gmd:CI_Citation/gmd:identifier Equivalent
  1. GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New item 'Unique resource identifier', required for INSPIRE
  2. GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: Name changed from Unique resource identifier, to reduce confusion with W3C URI
Guidelines
  1. The resource identifier can be a globally unique identifier such as a UUID, in which case it is encoded as shown in Example One.
  2. The form used in Example One can also be used if the identifier is expressed as a code space and code in URI form like http://image2000.jrc.it#image2000_1_nl2_multi However a better way to do this is to use the gmx:Anchor as in Example Two.
  3. Note that the identifier is encoded in the citation of the metadata instance
  4. A resource identifier (which may be the same as the code) should also be added to the 'id' attribute of the gmd:MD_DataIdentification type. This follows the examples in the INSPIRE guidance [9].
  5. Care must be taken with the value of the id attribute code. The attribute 'id' has the data type xs:ID which must have as its value an XML name. This means that it cannot start with a number, and has a restricted set of characters it can include. This means that normally it cannot be an UUID or an URI. The id must also be unique across all id attributes in the metadata document
  6. See notes on XML Identifiers.
Example Example One
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="_99999-def">
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          ...
          <gmd:identifier>
            <gmd:MD_Identifier>
              <gmd:code>
                <gco:CharacterString>527c4cac-070c-4bca-9aaf-92bece7be902</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:code>
              ...
            </gmd:MD_Identifier>
          </gmd:identifier>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Example Two - resolveable identifier using gmx:Anchor
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="image2000_1_nl2_multi">
      <gmd:citation>
        <gmd:CI_Citation>
          ...
            <gmd:MD_Identifier>
              <gmd:code>
                <gmx:Anchor xlink:href='http://image2000.jrc.it#image2000_1_nl2_multi'>Image 2000 and Corine Land Cover 2000 Project</gmx:Anchor>
              </gmd:code>
            </gmd:MD_Identifier>
          </gmd:identifier>
          ...
        </gmd:CI_Citation>
      </gmd:citation>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Conformity
UK GEMINI id 41
Definition Statement of conformity with the product specification or user requirement against which the data is being evaluated
Purpose and meaning The purpose of this is to record the conformity to the INSPIRE or other data specification
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain This class comprises the following elements:
  • Specification
  • Degree
  • Explanation
For details see below.
Metadata element name specification degree explanation
Definition Citation of the product specification or user requirement against which data resource is evaluated degree of conformity with the specification meaning of conformance for this result
Meaning The purpose of this element is to identify the specification against which conformity is evaluated The purpose of this element is to identify the conformity of the data resource to the cited specification The purpose of this element is to explain the meaning of conformity in this context
Obligation Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Occurrence single single single
Data type Class CI_Citation (from ISO19115) Boolean CharacterString
Domain The following properties are expected:
  • title of type character string (free text)
  • reference date defined as
    • a date type (creation, revision, or publication)
    • an effective date
true if conformant
false if not conformant
free text
Rules Cite the specification to which the data resource should conform The data resource should be evaluated against the specification and the result recorded Include a statement about which aspects of the specification the data resource conforms and any exceptions
Examples D2.8.I.5 INSPIRE Data Specification on Addresses - Guidelines, publication, 2010-04-26 true Only mandatory items included
Guidance
  1. Assess the conformity of the data resource against its product specification or the INSPIRE thematic data specification.
  2. For INSPIRE:
    • State the data specification to which the degree of conformity applied and optionally an 'Explanation'.
    • The multiplicity is one specification in the context of a conformity statement.
      However, more than one conformity statement can be included in a metadata instance.
    • Datasets and dataset series shall declare conformity to [Regulation 1089/2010].
  3. Other conformity statements may be added, citing INSPIRE technical guidance or other specifications
Comment
  1. The specification is identified in the element Specification.
  2. The conformance of a data resource may be considered with respect to more than one specification.
  3. For INSPIRE, the citation title shall be the official title of the INSPIRE Implementing Rule, specification document or Conformance Class
  4. For INSPIRE, the date given will be the date of publication of the INSPIRE Implementing Rule, specification document or Conformance Class
  5. For INSPIRE Implementing Rule documents, the value of the title element shall match exactly the official title of the cited document in the language of the metadata.
Examples Conformance of a dataset to Regulation 1089/2010 would have the title:
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability of spatial datasets and services.,
and would give a publication date of 2010-12-08
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Conformity Equivalent
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality > DQ_Element.result > DQ_ConformanceResult Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:report/gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency/gmd:result/gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult Equivalent
  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
  • GEMINI 2.2 to 2.3: it is no longer allowed to state that a resource has not been tested against the relevant INSPIRE specification
Guidelines
  1. The encoding for Conformity is shown in the example.
  2. Note that the encoding of conformity requires a specification (encoded using gmd:CI_Citation), an explanation and a pass. INSPIRE Metadata Implementing Rules state that there are possible conformance results: conformant, not conformant and not evaluated. Not evaluated is expressed by a conformity statement with a nilReason (unknown) specified in the pass element.
  3. In order to measure conformity, reference should be made to the conformance criteria in the specification against which conformance is being claimed, as part of the explanation
  1. All gmd:dataQualityInfo XML element shall have a gmd:scope XML element, set to 'dataset' or 'series' as appropriate.
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataQualityInfo>
    <gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
      <gmd:scope>
        <gmd:DQ_Scope>
          <gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
          </gmd:level>
          ...
        </gmd:DQ_Scope>
      </gmd:scope>
      <gmd:report>
        <gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
          <gmd:result>
            <gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
              <gmd:specification>
                <gmd:CI_Citation>
                  <gmd:title>
                    <gco:CharacterString>INSPIRE Implementing rules laying down technical arrangements for the interoperability 
                      and harmonisation of orthoimagery</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:title>
                  <gmd:date>
                    <gmd:CI_Date>
                      <gmd:date>
                        <gco:Date>2011-05-15</gco:Date>
                      </gmd:date>
                      <gmd:dateType>
                        <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode
                          codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                            gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                          codeListValue='publication'>publication</gmd:CI_DateTypeCode>
                      </gmd:dateType>
                    </gmd:CI_Date>
                  </gmd:date>
                </gmd:CI_Citation>
              </gmd:specification>
              <gmd:explanation>
                <gco:CharacterString>See the referenced specification</gco:CharacterString>
              </gmd:explanation>
              <gmd:pass>
                <gco:Boolean>true</gco:Boolean>
              </gmd:pass>
            </gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
          </gmd:result>
        </gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
      </gmd:report>
      ...
    </gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
  </gmd:dataQualityInfo>
</gmd:MD_Metadata>

Example of a conformity report for Implementing Rule 1089/2010, where conformance is not evaluated.
Example follows updated guidance to use gmx:Anchor over gco:CharacterString for Citation titles

 <gmd:report 
    xmlns:gmd="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmd" 
    xmlns:gco="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gco" 
    xmlns:gmx="http://www.isotc211.org/2005/gmx" 
    xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">
    <gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
        <gmd:result>
            <gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
                <gmd:specification>
                    <gmd:CI_Citation>
                        <gmd:title>
                            <gmx:Anchor xlink:href="http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2010/1089">
                                Commission Regulation (EU) No 1089/2010 of 23 November 2010 implementing Directive 
                                2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards interoperability 
                                of spatial datasets and services</gmx:Anchor>
                        </gmd:title>
                        <gmd:date>
                            <gmd:CI_Date>
                                <gmd:date>
                                    <gco:Date>2010-12-08</gco:Date>
                                </gmd:date>
                                <gmd:dateType>
                                    <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode 
                                        codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#CI_DateTypeCode' 
                                        codeListValue='publication' />
                                </gmd:dateType>
                            </gmd:CI_Date>
                        </gmd:date>
                    </gmd:CI_Citation>
                </gmd:specification>
                <!-- Explanation is a required element but can be empty -->
                <gmd:explanation gco:nilReason="inapplicable"/>
                <!-- Conformance has no been evaluated -->
                <gmd:pass gco:nilReason="unknown" />
            </gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
        </gmd:result>
    </gmd:DQ_DomainConsistency>
</gmd:report>

Example three ~ Topological consistency, showing mandatory elements for a descriptive topological consistency report

<gmd:report>
   <gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
      <gmd:result>
         <gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
            <gmd:specification>
               <gmd:CI_Citation>
                  <gmd:title>
                     <!-- The title for this report shall always be "INSPIRE Data Specifications - Base Models - Generic Network Model" -->
                     <gco:CharacterString>INSPIRE Data Specifications - Base Models - Generic Network Model</gco:CharacterString>
                  </gmd:title>
                  <gmd:date>
                     <gmd:CI_Date>
                        <gmd:date>
                           <!-- The date shall be the date of publication of the Generic Network Model -->
                           <gco:Date>2013-04-05</gco:Date>
                        </gmd:date>
                        <gmd:dateType>
                           <!-- The code list value shall always be publication -->
                           <gmd:CI_DateTypeCode codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml' 
                           codeListValue='publication'/>
                        </gmd:dateType>
                     </gmd:CI_Date>
                  </gmd:date>
               </gmd:CI_Citation>
            </gmd:specification>
            <!-- An explanation must be provided -->
            <gmd:explanation><gco:CharacterString>[Some statement on topological consistency]</gco:CharacterString></gmd:explanation>
            <gmd:pass>
               <!-- The value shall always be false to indicate that the data does not assure the centerline topology for the network -->
               <gco:Boolean>false</gco:Boolean>
            </gmd:pass>
         </gmd:DQ_ConformanceResult>
      </gmd:result>
   </gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
</gmd:report>
Errors observed Conformity statement missing -
INSPIRE requires a 'conformity' statement, which can say that the resource conforms, or does not conform to a specification.
This is encoded with an ISO 19139 quality report.
Name : Equivalent scale
UK GEMINI id 43
Definition Level of detail expressed as the scale denominator of a comparable hardcopy map or chart
Purpose and meaning This is purely to conform to INSPIRE, and has little meaning for most digital data
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Integer
Domain Positive integer
Guidance Where the data is captured from a map, the scale of that map should be recorded.
Comment Expression of spatial resolution by distance is preferred. Spatial resolution should only be expressed by equivalent scale where a distance cannot be determined.
Examples 5,000
Revision date July 2009
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial resolution Spatial resolution may also be expressed as distance
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.spatialResolution > MD_Resolution.equivalentScale > MD_RepresentativeFraction.denominator Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:spatialResolution/gmd:MD_Resolution/gmd:equivalentScale Equivalent
GEMINI 1 to 2.0: New element
Guidelines
Example
   
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="def-005000">
      ...
      <gmd:spatialResolution>
        <gmd:MD_Resolution>
          <gmd:equivalentScale>
            <gmd:MD_RepresentativeFraction>
              <gmd:denominator>
                <gco:Integer>50000</gco:Integer>
              </gmd:denominator>
            </gmd:MD_RepresentativeFraction>
          </gmd:equivalentScale>
        </gmd:MD_Resolution>
      </gmd:spatialResolution>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Bounding box
UK GEMINI id 44
Definition Rectangle enclosing the extent of the data resource described in latitude and longitude
Purpose and meaning This is to enable the resource to be located geographically
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain EX_GeographicBoundingBox
Metadata element name West bounding longitude East bounding longitude South bounding latitude North bounding latitude
Definition western-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in longitude in decimal degrees (positive east) eastern-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in longitude in decimal degrees (positive east) southern-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in latitude in decimal degrees (positive north) northern-most limit of the data resource extent, expressed in latitude in decimal degrees (positive north)
Obligation mandatory mandatory mandatory mandatory
Occurrence single single single single
Data type Decimal, expressed in degrees to at least two decimal places
Domain -180.00 <= west bounding longitude <= 180.00 -180.00 <= east bounding longitude <= 180.00 -90.00 <= south bounding latitude <= north bounding latitude south bounding latitude <= north bounding latitude <= 90.00
Other comments The West bounding coordinate usually has a value less than the value of the East bounding coordinate, except when the extent straddles the 180 degree meridian. The East bounding longitude usually has a value greater than the value of the West bounding longitude, except when the extent straddles the 180 degree meridian.
Guidance
  1. Identify a bounding box slightly larger than the extent of the data resource, and determine the coordinates of the boundaries. It may be necessary to convert from another coordinate system (e.g. National Grid) into lat/long.
  2. Only approximate values are required, sufficient to identify the extent on a global basis. The bounding box is implicitly in WGS84.
Comment The bounding box will often cover areas that are not directly related to the area covered by the resource.
Examples -9.23, 2.69, 49.84, 60.85
Revision date December 2012
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Geographic bounding box Identical
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.extent > EX_Extent > EX_GeographicExtent > EX_GeographicBoundingBox Minor difference in name
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:extent/gmd:EX_Extent/gmd:geographicElement/gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox
  • GEMINI 1 to 2.0: Slight change of name of each element
  • GEMINI 2.1 to 2.2: the four separate elements were merged to form Bounding box, which was made multiple
Guidelines
  1. The encoding example for geographic bounding box for datasets is shown in the example
  2. Note that the extent XML element is in the gmd namespace. This differs from service metadata instances where the extent XML element will be in the srv namespace.
  3. The definition of the equivalent ISO 19115 class, EX_GeographicBoundingBox, is 'Geographic area of the entire dataset referenced to WGS 84'. Consequently, the CRS of the coordinates expressed in metadata is always WGS 84 (identified by the EPSG URI http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326). This means that the coordinate values shall be expressed in units of degrees (encoded using decimal numbers) with axes orientated north and east. The geodetic datum is WGS 84.
Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:identificationInfo>
    <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="xxx-27700-x">
      ...
      <gmd:extent>
        <gmd:EX_Extent>
          <gmd:geographicElement>
            <gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox>
              <gmd:westBoundLongitude>
                <gco:Decimal>-8.14</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:westBoundLongitude>
              <gmd:eastBoundLongitude>
                <gco:Decimal>2.96</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:eastBoundLongitude>
              <gmd:southBoundLatitude>
                <gco:Decimal>49.79</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:southBoundLatitude>
              <gmd:northBoundLatitude>
                <gco:Decimal>60.77</gco:Decimal>
              </gmd:northBoundLatitude>
            </gmd:EX_GeographicBoundingBox>
          </gmd:geographicElement>
          ...
        </gmd:EX_Extent>
      </gmd:extent>
      ...
    </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
  </gmd:identificationInfo>
  ...
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
Errors observed Overly precise bounding box
GEMINI states that the bounding latitude and longitude should be stated to at least two decimal places. The INSPIRE geoportal used to report two decimal places as an error; it does not now. However, some software defaults to values that are unnecessarily "precise". For example:
<gmd:westBoundLongitude>
  <gco:Decimal>-8.17548890898914</gco:Decimal>
</gmd:westBoundLongitude>
Six decimal places of a degree is something like 1cm, so the longitude above is being given to roughly the nearest molecule.
Name : Quality scope
UK GEMINI id 48
Definition The specific data to which the data quality information applies
Purpose and meaning To enable data quality to be reported on a subset of the data resource
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class
Domain DQ_Scope from ISO 19115
Guidance
  1. For the conformity statement and lineage of metadata describing:
    • a dataset, set quality scope to 'dataset'
    • a dataset series, set quality scope 'series'
  2. If using a Data Quality element to describe something other than the whole dataset or series, then provide additional DQ_DataQuality elements with their Scope set appropriately
Comment Required in the ISO 19115 encoding of GEMINI 2 metadata records, to assist in managing related metadata records.
Examples
Revision date March 2019
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata metadata/2.0/req/datasets-and-series/one-data-quality-element INSPIRE only allows a maximum of one Data quality element, so only one scope - the whole resource
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality.scope Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:scope Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines

All gmd:dataQualityInfo XML element shall have a gmd:scope XML element, set to as appropriate.

There shall be exactly one gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality element scoped to the entire described data set or data set series. This shall contain the Conformity and Lineage elements, and any Quality measures that relate to the the entire dataset or series

Other quality measures, e.g. for specific feature types, shall be separate DQ_DataQuality elements, with the relevant Quality scope. In these cases the Level Description must also be set

Example
<gmd:MD_Metadata>
  ...
  <gmd:dataQualityInfo>
    <gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
      <gmd:scope>
        <gmd:DQ_Scope>
          <gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
          </gmd:level>
          ...
        </gmd:DQ_Scope>
      </gmd:scope>
      ...
    </gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
  </gmd:dataQualityInfo>
</gmd:MD_Metadata>
No error information available
Name : Spatial representation type
UK GEMINI id 50
Definition The method used to spatially represent geographic information
Purpose and meaning The type in which the spatial data is represented may be of importance when evaluating the fit for purpose of the dataset. The code list value of this element is intended for describing this information.
Obligation Mandatory
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class (CodeList)
Domain MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode from ISO 19115. Codes to be used are:
  1. vector
  2. grid
  3. tin
  4. textTable
Guidance
  1. tin stands for triangulated irregular network. TIN is a digital data structure used in a geographic information system (GIS) for the representation of a surface
  2. textTable should be used for datasets with an indirect spatial reference
  3. grid should be used for images and coverage data
Comment This element is regarded by the INSPIRE metadata technical guidance as interoperability metadata for datasets and dataset series
Examples vector
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Spatial representation type (metadata/2.0/req/isdss/spatial-representation-type)
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.spatialRepresentationType
references: B.5.26 MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode CodeList
CodeList is a superset of values used by INSPIRE
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:spatialRepresentationType/gmd:MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode
  • In original GEMINI, but removed in 2
  • Reintroduced in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines Only the codeListValue is required, the codeList and the free text content are optional and informative only
Example
   <gmd:identificationInfo>
      <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="CEH-barrcj2015">
        ...
         <gmd:resourceConstraints>
            ...
         </gmd:resourceConstraints>
         <gmd:spatialRepresentationType>
            <gmd:MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode 
            codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_SpatialRepresentationTypeCode' 
            codeListValue='textTable' />
         </gmd:spatialRepresentationType>
         <gmd:language>
            ...
         </gmd:language>
        ...
      </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
No error information available
Name : Character encoding
UK GEMINI id 51
Definition The character encoding used in the dataset
Purpose and meaning To enable data in non-standard character encodings to be handled
Obligation Conditional (mandatory if an encoding is used that is not based on UTF-8, otherwise optional)
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class (CodeList)
Domain MD_CharacterSetCode from ISO 19115
Guidance If more than one charater encoding is used within the dataset or dataset series, all used character encodings Including UTF-8, shall be given.
Comment This element is regarded by the INSPIRE metadata technical guidance as interoperability metadata for datasets and dataset series
Examples
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Character encoding (metadata/2.0/req/isdss/character-encoding)
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.characterSet
references: B.5.10 MD_CharacterSetCode CodeList
Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:characterSet/gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines Only the codeListValue is required, the codeList and the free text content are optional and informative only
Example
   <gmd:identificationInfo>
      <gmd:MD_DataIdentification id="UKHO-12mfihlimit">
         <gmd:citation>
            ...
         </gmd:citation>
        ...
         <gmd:language>
            ...
         </gmd:language>
         <gmd:characterSet>
            <gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_CharacterSetCode' 
              codeListValue='8859part1'>ISO/IEC 8859-1 (also known as Latin 1)</gmd:MD_CharacterSetCode>
         </gmd:characterSet>
         <gmd:topicCategory>
            ...
         </gmd:topicCategory>
         <gmd:extent>
            ...
         </gmd:extent>
            ...
      </gmd:MD_DataIdentification>
   </gmd:identificationInfo>
No error information available
Name : Data quality
UK GEMINI id 52
Definition Quantitative aspects of data quality
Purpose and meaning To allow quantitative description of the completeness, consistency, accuracy, and correctness of the data
Obligation Conditional: Topological consistency report is mandatory if the dataset includes types from the INSPIRE Generic Network Model and does not assure centerline topology (connectivity of centrelines) for the network, otherwise optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type Class, subtypes of DQ_Element
Domain

DQ_Element from ISO 19115

DQ_Element is an abstract complex type and has to be expressed by a corresponding DQ_xxx subelement concerning the particular data quality issue e.g. DQ_ConceptualConsistency. All these types have the same sub-attributes, such as nameOfMeasure, dateTime, result. It is important to choose the correct subelement, to clearly indicate the type of quality statement being made. Only the result sub-element (value, value type) is mandatory. All DQ_Element subtypes have the same sub-elements.

Table 1 Data Quality sub-elements
Data Quality sub-element name result dateTime nameOfMeasure
Definition value (or set of values) obtained from applying a data quality measure or the outcome of evaluating the obtained value (or set of values) against a specified acceptable conformance quality level date or range of dates on which a data quality measure was applied name of the test applied to the data
Obligation mandatory optional optional
Occurence single single single
Data type DQ_QuantitativeResult DateTime CharacterString
Domain see table two below see table three below
Table 2: DQ_QuantitativeResult
Data Quantitative Result sub-element name valueUnit value valueType
Definition the units in which the result is reported the quantitative result the data type of the result
Obligation mandatory mandatory mandatory
Occurence single multiple single
Data type UnitOfMeasure Record RecordType
Domain see table three below see table three below
Table 3: Details for various types of quality measure
Name DQ_Element subtype Definition nameOfMeasure Value type Example INSPIRE themes
As given in the INSPIRE Data Specifications See the relevant specification for more details of each measure
Completeness - Commission DQ_CompletenessCommission excess data present in the dataset, as described by the scope Rate of excess items Real AU, AD, TN, HY, PS, EL, LC, SU, BU, LU, US
Number of duplicate feature instances Integer TN
Completeness - Omission DQ_CompletenessOmission data absent from the dataset, as described by the scope Rate of missing items Real GN, AU, AD, CP, TN, HY, PS, EL, LC, OI, (not GE), SU, BY, SO, LU, US, PF, AF, OF
Conceptual consistency DQ_ConceptualConsistency adherence to rules of the conceptual schema Non-compliance rate with respect to the rules of the conceptual schema Real EL
Number of items not compliant with the rules of the conceptual schema Integer AU, TN
Conceptual schema non-compliance Boolean LC
Domain consistency DQ_DomainConsistency adherence of values to the value domains Number of items not in conformance with their value domain Integer AU
Value domain non-conformance rate Real EL
Value domain conformance rate Real HY
Value domain non-conformance Boolean LC
Topological consistency DQ_TopologicalConsistency Correctness of the explicitly encoded topological characteristics of the dataset
Note: Only use this if the topological consistency can be quantified, otherwise provide a descriptive result with a DQ_ConformanceResult element; see GEMINI Conformity element
Number of faulty point-curve connections Integer AU, TN, HY
Number of missing connections due to undershoots Integer AU, TN, HY
Rate of missing connections due to undershoots Real EL
Number of missing connections due to overshoots Integer TN, HY
Rate of missing connections due to overshoots Real EL
Number of missing connections due to crossing of bridge/road Integer HY
Number of invalid overlaps of surfaces Integer HY
Slivers Integer SU
Number of invalid slivers Integer
Number of invalid self-intersect errors Integer TN, HY, LC
Rate of invalid self-intersect errors Real EL
Number of invalid self-overlap errors Integer TN, HY
Rate of invalid self-overlap errors Rate EL
Number of watercourse links below threshold length Integer HY
Number of closed watercourse links Integer HY
Number of multi-part watercourse links Integer HY
Format consistency DQ_FormatConsistency Degree to which data is stored in accordance with the physical structure of the dataset Physical structure conflict rate EL
Physical structure conflicts Boolean LC
Absolute or external accuracy DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy closeness of reported coordinate values to values accepted as or being true Mean value of positional uncertainties Measure
Positional accuracy Measure SU
Root mean square error of planimetry Measure EL, LC
Root mean square error Measure EL
Gridded positional accuracy DQ_GriddedDataPositionalAccuracy Closeness of gridded data position values to values accepted as or being true Root mean square error of planimetry Measure EL
Relative positional accuracy DQ_RelativeInternalPositionalAccuracy closeness of the relative positions of features in the scope to their respective relative positions accepted as or being true Relative horizontal error Measure
Root mean square error of planimetry Real LC
Temporal validity DQ_TemporalValidity Temporal accuracy Boolean SU
Thematic accuracy - classification DQ_ThematicClassificationCorrectness Comparison of the classes assigned to features or their attributes to a universe of discourse Misclassification rate Real TN, LC
Thematic accuracy Real SU
Misclassification matrix Matrix of integers LC
Quantitative attribute accuracy DQ_QuantitativeAttributeAccuracy Accuracy of quantitative attributes Attribute value uncertainty at 95% significance level Real HY
Scatter plot Graphical LC
non-quantitative attribute correctness DQ_NonQuantitiveAttributeAccuracy correctness of non-quantitative attributes Rate of incorrect attribute values Real
Number of incorrect attribute values Integer

Other attributes of ISO 19115 DQ_Element may be included, e.g.:

Table 4 Optional data quality sub-elements
evaluationMethodType evaluationMethodDescription
Definition type of method used to evaluate quality of the dataset description of the evaluation method
Obligation optional optional
Occurence single single
Data type DQ_EvaluationMethodTypeCode free text
Domain
directInternal method of evaluating the quality of a dataset based on inspection of items within the dataset, where all data required is internal to the dataset being evaluated
directExternal method of evaluating the quality of a dataset based on inspection of items within the dataset, where reference data external to the dataset being evaluated is required
indirect method of evaluating the quality of a dataset based on external knowledge
For example, in the INSPIRE Metadata Technical Guidelines, recommendation 2.3 says “It is recommended to provide a short description of the evaluation method used for topological consistency check”.
Guidance
Comment This element is regarded by the INSPIRE metadata technical guidance as interoperability metadata for datasets and dataset series
Examples
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Topological consistency
either: metadata/2.0/req/isdss/topological-consistency-quantitative-results
or: metadata/2.0/req/isdss/topological-consistency-descriptive-results
Other types are specified in the data specifications
ISO 19115:2003 DQ_DataQuality.report->DQ_Element Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality/gmd:report/gmd:DQ_******** Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines

There shall be exactly one gmd:dataQualityInfo/gmd:DQ_DataQuality element scoped to the entire described data set or data set series. So if the scope of the quality measure is the entire dataset or series, then the result shall be in the same DQ_DataQuality element as the Conformity and Lineage elements

Other quality measures, e.g. for specific feature types, shall be separate DQ_DataQuality elements, with the relevant Quality scope

Quantitative results shall be reported using the relevant gmd:report/gmd:DQ_XXXXX element with a gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult element as the value of its mandatory gmd:result property.

The gmd:valueUnit and gmd:value/gco:Record child elements of gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult shall be used for giving a numerical or otherwise quantitative value.

The value type of the result shall be declared using the xsi:type attribute of the gco:Record element. Note that many of the INSPIRE Data Specifications give a value type of “Real, percentage, ratio”; GEMINI recommends using real numbers in all these cases, which should be declared as xs:double.

As well as the mandatory elements, it is also recommended to supply a name of the measure, a short description of the evaluation method, and a date for the evaluation of the consistency check

Example
<gmd:dataQualityInfo>
	<gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
		<gmd:scope>
			<gmd:DQ_Scope>
				<gmd:level>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
				</gmd:level>
			</gmd:DQ_Scope>
		</gmd:scope>
		<gmd:report>
			<gmd:DQ_CompletenessCommission>
				<gmd:nameOfMeasure>
					<gco:CharacterString>Rate of excess items</gco:CharacterString>
				</gmd:nameOfMeasure>
				<gmd:dateTime>
					<gco:DateTime>2017-04-01T01:00:00</gco:DateTime>
				</gmd:dateTime>
				<gmd:result>
					<gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
						<gmd:valueUnit gco:nilReason="inapplicable"/>
						<gmd:value>
							<gco:Record
								xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
								xsi:type="xs:double">0.01</gco:Record>
						</gmd:value>
					</gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
				</gmd:result>
			</gmd:DQ_CompletenessCommission>
		</gmd:report>
		<gmd:report>
			<gmd:DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy>
				<gmd:nameOfMeasure><gco:CharacterString>Root mean square error</gco:CharacterString></gmd:nameOfMeasure>
				<gmd:dateTime><gco:DateTime>2017-04-01T02:00:00</gco:DateTime></gmd:dateTime>
				<gmd:result><gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
					<gmd:valueUnit>
						<gml:BaseUnit gml:id="ID001">
							<gml:identifier codeSpace="SI">meters</gml:identifier>
							<gml:unitsSystem xlink:href="http://www.bipm.org/en/si/"/>
						</gml:BaseUnit>
					</gmd:valueUnit>
					<gmd:value>
					 <gco:Record
						xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
						xsi:type="xs:real">0.1</gco:Record></gmd:value>
				</gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult></gmd:result>
			</gmd:DQ_AbsoluteExternalPositionalAccuracy>
		</gmd:report>
	</gmd:DQ_DataQuality>
</gmd:dataQualityInfo>
          

Example two - Topological consistency

 <gmd:report>
    <gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
       <gmd:result>
          <gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
             <!--The mandatory elements are valueUnit and value/Record with xsi:type  -->
             <gmd:valueUnit xlink:href="http://www.opengis.net/def/uom/OGC/1.0/unity"/>
             <gmd:value>
                 <gco:Record 
                   xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
                   xsi:type="xs:integer">12</gco:Record>
             </gmd:value>
          </gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
       </gmd:result>
    </gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
</gmd:report>

Example three ~ Topological consistency, showing a quantitative topological consistency report with recommended elements included

 <gmd:report>
   <gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
      <gmd:nameOfMeasure>
         <gco:CharacterString>
         Number of faulty point-curve connections
         </gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:nameOfMeasure>
      <gmd:evaluationMethodType>
         <gmd:DQ_EvaluationMethodTypeCode 
           codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#DQ_EvaluationMethodTypeCode' 
           codeListValue='indirect' />
      </gmd:evaluationMethodType>
      <gmd:evaluationMethodDescription>
         <gco:CharacterString>
           A point-curve connection exists where different curves touch... 
         </gco:CharacterString>
      </gmd:evaluationMethodDescription>
      <gmd:dateTime>2017-01-21T19:21:30</gmd:dateTime>
      <gmd:result>
         <gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
            <!--The mandatory elements are valueUnit and value/Record with xsi:type  -->
            <gmd:valueUnit xlink:href="http://www.opengis.net/def/uom/OGC/1.0/unity"/>
            <gmd:value>
               <gco:Record 
                 xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
                 xsi:type="xs:integer">12</gco:Record>
            </gmd:value>
         </gmd:DQ_QuantitativeResult>
      </gmd:result>
   </gmd:DQ_TopologicalConsistency>
</gmd:report>
No error information available
Name : Maintenance information
UK GEMINI id 53
Definition Information about the scope and frequency of updating
Purpose and meaning
Obligation Optional
Occurrence Multiple
Data type MD_MaintenanceInformation
Domain complex type
Guidance
Comment Recommended for all INSPIRE themes
See the relevant INSPIRE data specifications, section 8.3.1 for further theme specific information
Examples
Revision date May 2018
Standard Name Comparison
INSPIRE Metadata Maintenance information
ISO 19115:2003 MD_DataIdentification.resourceMaintenance Equivalent
ISO 19139:2007 /gmd:MD_Metadata/gmd:identificationInfo[1]/gmd:MD_DataIdentification/gmd:resourceMaintenance/ Equivalent
New element in GEMINI 2.3
Guidelines At least maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency should be used, in addition it is recommended to supply updateScope/MD_ScopeCode and maintenanceNote
Example
         <gmd:resourceMaintenance>
            <gmd:MD_MaintenanceInformation>
               <!-- At least maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency should be used -->
               <gmd:maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency>
                  <gmd:MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode 
                     codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/gmxCodelists.xml#MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode' 
                     codeListValue='annually'>annually</gmd:MD_MaintenanceFrequencyCode>
               </gmd:maintenanceAndUpdateFrequency>
               <!-- The following elements are recommended-->
               <gmd:updateScope>
            <gmd:MD_ScopeCode codeListValue='dataset' 
              codeList='http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/ISO_19139_Schemas/resources/codelist/
                gmxCodelists.xml#MD_ScopeCode'>dataset</gmd:MD_ScopeCode>
               </gmd:updateScope>
               <gmd:maintenanceNote>
                  <gco:CharacterString>[Information regarding specific requirements for maintaining the resource]</gco:CharacterString>
               </gmd:maintenanceNote>
            </gmd:MD_MaintenanceInformation>
         </gmd:resourceMaintenance>
No error information available

For an explanation of the sections, see UK GEMINI Introduction

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